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5 

301.243 
E13scd 
1975 




SATISFACTION, COAL DEVELOPMENT AND LAND USE PLANNING: 

A REPORT OF ATTITUDES HELD BY RESIDENTS OF THE 

DECKER-BIRNEY STUDY AREA 

by 
Patrick C. Jobe9 

and 
Milton G. Parsons 



STATE DOCUMENTS COLLECTION 



,- 



MONTANA STATE li •.< (Y 
1515 E. 6th AVE 

HFI FNA MH 



Submitted to: 

Montana Energy Advisory Council 

April 30, 1975 



Montana State University- 



Bozeman, Montana 59715 Tel. 406-994-4201 



Department of Sociology 
College of Letters and Science 

and 
Agricultural Experiment Station 



Sociology Rural Sociology 

Social Work Anthropology 

Criminal Justice 



June 23, 1975 



JUL 



Ted Clack 
Lieutenant 



Governor 1 s Of f i ce 



Capitol Station 
Helena, Montana 59601 

Dear Ted, 

Thank you for pointing out the deletion of some rather critical 
words in the wording of Table 4F on page 76 of my Decker -Bi rney 
Area Report to MEAC. 

The table appears to convey general favoritism of construction of 
more generating units. In fact, it shculd convey that respondents 
generally favor a moratorium on construction of more units in the 
Decker-Bi rney Area. Among respondents single, divorced, or 
separated persons are most in favor of a moratorium while married 
and widowed persons favor a moratorium less strongly. 

Please forgive the errors. Undoubtedly there will be others but 
I hope they will not be so critical as this one. Please let me 
know if you detect any further errors or if you have any other 
questions regarding the report. 



Si nee rely , 
/ - 



Patrick C, 
Ass i s tant 
Soci ol ogy 



Jobes 
Professor 



PCJ:tk 



MONTANA STATE LIBRARY 



III I 

3 0864 1002 12870 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 



The most important persons involved in the success of any survey 
research project are the subjects. The residents of the Decker-Birney 
Study Area were extremely cooperative and helpful throughout the entire 
project. In spite of the lengthy and cumbersome questionnaire most 
residents remained interested and pleasant throughout the interview. 
Special help was provided by Chuck McGlothlin and Dick Turner of The 
United States Forest Service and Steve Knapp of The Montana Fish and 
Game Department. 

The interviewers, who had to administer the questionnaire as well 
as endure scheduling problems and natural disasters, deserve thanks 
merely for enduring. Joan Bakker, Cathy Orlando and Chris Cikan from 
Montana State University and Dorothy A. Tartar, Teri Boardman and 
Mary Lou Ebeling from The Study Area did an exceptional job despite 
difficulties seldom encountered in most social research. 

The clerical and secretarial help also have earned mention. 
Marlene Short, Irene Wilson and Kathy Hocevar have been extremely 
helpful and even-tempered in spite of considerable pressure and very 
rough drafts of materials. Tom Klindt served under similar conditions 
at the computer terminal. 

The patience and advice of several persons associated with the 
funding and administration of the project also has been appreciated. 
Larry Kain from Montana State University, Ernest Kemmis and Paul Meyers 
from The Bureau of Land Management, and, especially Ted Clack from the 
Montana Lieutenant Governor's Office, deserve mention in this regard. 



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TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Page 

LIST OF TABLES v 

LIST OF FIGURES vlil 

Chapter 

1 . INTRODUCTION 1 

MONTANA, THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT AND RESOURCE USE.. 5 

Statement of Problem 6 

Need for the Study 

Questions to be Answered 9 

Limitations of the Study 10 

Summary 10 

Theoretical Perspective 11 

2. THE CONCEPT OF DEVELOPMENT: ASSOCIATED ISSUES, 

LOCAL HISTORY AND A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 16 

A Look at Coal Development With a Historic 

Perspective 

Coal Development in Montana 30 

Description of Montana's Rural Population 34 

Decker-Bimey Study Area 36 

Summary 44 



3. RESEARCH PROCEDURES 46 

Int roduct ion 46 

Population Description and Sample Selection ... 47 

Method of Collecting Data 49 

Analysis of Data 51 

The Research Design for Analysis 53 

Summary 57 



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Chapter Pa 8 e 

4. SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC COMPOSITION 58 

Age o f Respondent 59 

Satisfaction 62 

Planning 63 

Ownership 66 

Marital Status 69 

Profile of Marital Status 70 

Satisfaction 

Planning 7^ 

Development 

Ownership Measures 78 

Summary 82 

Parenthood and The Number of Offspring ... 84 
Characteristics of Respondents by Number 

of Children *5 

Satisfaction Measures 89 

Planning and Development Measures 91 

Ownership 9 3 

Personal Acquaintance Measures 93 

Summary 96 

Sex of Respondent 97 

Satisfaction Measures 99 

Planning and Development 99 

Ownership Measures 104 

Summary 106 

5. SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS 108 

Introduction 108 

Number of Years Lived in The Study Area .. 109 

Satisfaction Measures 112 

Planning and Development 113 

Ownership 116 

Where Respondents Were Raised 121 

General Planning 127 

Knowledge of Planning 129 

Ownership Measures 131 

Area Attraction Measures 131 

Personal Acceptance Measures 133 

Where Respondents Currently Reside 135 

Ownership Measures 143 

Summary 147 



iii 



I 



Chapter Page 

6. SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS 148 

Introduction 148 

Satisfaction 152 

Planning 152 

Ownership Measures 155 

Knowledge Measures 157 

Occupation 160 

Satisfaction Measures 163 

Planning 165 

Knowledge Concerning Planning 167 

Ownership Measures 169 

Family Income 1 72 

Satisfaction Measures 174 

Ownership Measures 176 

7. PLANNING AND ITS IMPLICATIONS IN THE DECKER- 

BIRNEY STUDY AREA 181 

The Relationship of Planning to Design ... 187 



LITERATURE CITED 199 

APPENDIX A QUESTIONNAIRE AND RESPONSES 207 

APPENDIX B USE OF MNEMONICS 274 



iv 



LIST OF TABLES 



Chapter 1 
TABLE 1 
TABLE 2 
Chapter 2 
TABLE 3 

Chapter 3 
TABLE 4 
Chapter 4 
TABLE 4A 
TABLE 4B 
TABLE 4C 
TABLE 4D 
TABLE 4E 
TABLE 4F 
TABLE 4G 
TABLE 4H 

TABLE 41 
TABLE 4J 
TABLE 4K 



Pa&e 

Mineral Ownership by Acres fi 

Possible Levels of Coal Development 9 

Montana's Population of Incorporated and 

Unincorporated Places 34 

Breakdown of Family Units Interviewed 49 

AGE OF RESPONDENTS BY NUMBER OF YEARS IN AREA. . . 61 

SATISFACTION WITH AGE 64 

PLANNING WITH AGE 65 

OWNERSHIP WITH AGE 6R 

SATISFACTION WITH MARITAL STATUS 74 

MARITAL STATUS (MARSTAT) WITH (MORPOWR) 76 

PLANNING WITH MARITAL STATUS 77 

MARITAL STATUS WITH THE IMPORTANCE OF 

HAVING THE FAMILY NEARBY 79 

OWNERSHIP WITH MARITAL STATUS 81 

SATISFACTION WITH NUMBER OF CHILDREN 90 

PLANNING WITH NUMBER OF CHILDREN 94 



TABLE 4L OWNERSHIP WITH NUMBER OF CHILDREN 95 

TABLE 4M SATISFACTION WITH SEX 10 ° 

TABLE 4N SEX WITH JOBS IN AREA MORE IMPORTANT 

THAN CLEAN ENVIRONMENT (AG EMPLOY) 103 

TABLE 40 PLANNING WITH SEX 105 

TABLE 4P OWNERSHIP WITH SEX 107 

Chapter 5 

TABLE 5A SATISFACTION WITH YEARS IN AREA 11* 

TABLE 5B PLANNING WITH YEARS IN AREA H? 

TABLE 5 C OWNERSHIP WITH YEARS IN AREA 120 

TABLE 5D SATISFACTION WITH WHERE RESPONDENTS RAISED . . 12R 

TABLE 5E PLANNING WITH WHERE RESPONDENTS RAISED 130 

TABLE 5F OWNERSHIP WITH WHERE RESPONDENTS RAISED 132 

TABLE 5G SATISFACTION WITH WHERE RESPONDENTS 

CURRENTLY RESIDE i39 

TABLE 5H PLANNING WITH WHERE RESPONDENTS CURRENTLY 

RESIDE 144 

TABLE 51 OWNERSHIP WITH WHERE RESPONDENTS CURRENTLY 

RESIDE 1A6 

Chapter 6 

TABLE 6A SATISFACTION WITH EDUCATION 153 

TABLE 6B PLANNING WITH EDUCATION I 56 

TABLE 6C OWNERSHIP WITH EDUCATION 158 



vi 



TABLE 6D 
TABLE 6E 
TABLE 6F 
TABLE 6G 
TABLE 6H 
TABLE 61 



SATISFACTION WITH OCCUPATIONAL STATUS 16A 

PLANNING WITH OCCUPATIONAL STATUS 168 

OWNERSHIP WITH OCCUPATIONAL STATUS 170 

PLANNING WITH FAMILY INCOME 175 

SATISFACTION WITH FAMILY INCOME 177 

OWNERSHIP WITH FAMILY INCOME 179 



vli 



LIST OF FIGURES 

Chapter 1 Page 

FIGURE 1 Decker Birney Location Map (B.L.M. and U.S.F.S., 

1974:1) 4 

Chapter 2 

FIGURE 2 Agricultural Ecosystem 39 

FIGURE 3 Ponderosa Pine Ecosystem 40 

FIGURE 4 Sage-Shrub Ecosystem 41 

FIGURE 5 Coal Opposition Depicted 4 r > 



viii 



Chapter 1 
INTRODUCTION 

Southeastern Montana is a land of contrasts. Forests and mountain 
streams are juxtaposed on high arid plains. Modern cowboys and Indians 
reside in the same county as a thriving city. And the past, which seems 
to be conspicuously evident throughout much of the area, awaits a 
rapidly altered future. This paper is intended to familiarize the reader 
with the population characteristics of Southeastern Montana by describing 
past experience, present trends and future projection. Issues associated 
with past and future population change will be discussed. 

Southeastern Montana is a vast land which defies generalizations 
made from limited information. Unfortunately, aa will be discussed 
later, generalizations need to be generated from inadequate information. 
Census data are accurate but are of limited usefulness. That is, they 
are essentially al theoretical and hence do not always lend themselves 
to testing of hypotheses created independently of them. Moreover, 
census data are descriptive of discrete periods. So such, they do not 
necessarily lend themselves to process analysis, especially beyond the 
date of the most recent census. 

Perhaps the most noticeable characteristic to those relatively 
few outsiders who might pass through the Decker-Birney Study Area is 
an absence of development. This absence might be noticed by the out- 
sider in a variety of ways. The unpaved roads, the long distances 
between buildings, the biological and topographical naturalness of the 



- 1 - 



landscape, the small number of inhabitants probably all serve to convey 
an image of little development to the outsider. Although many local 
inhabitants do not express the nature of development in the terms of 
absences, they, too, are aware of the relatively unique character of 
the area in which they reside. More likely, the sensitized inhabitant 
will describe the area in terms of quality of range land, hunting, 
security of friends and relatives and its past. The absence of 
development for these persons seems to be a condition to be enjoyed 
more than merely endured although probably few persons are more aware 
of the rigors and hardships which must be endured in order to exist 
in this area. 

This area is likely to lead outsiders and inhabitants, alike, to 
engage in descriptions which transcend reality by varying degrees. 
Cowboy culture, a term descriptive of how local inhabitants perceive 
themselves and wish to be seen by others, is a fusion of a recent 
history of cattle drives and battle against elements and hostile natives. 
Although modern technology has changed the methods of raising cattle, has 
eased the transportation and communication problems in the environment 
and harshly subdued the indigenous peoples, many of the social 
interactional and organizational characteristics of the social system 
are preserved. However archaic the modern cowboy life may be in any 
absolute technological sense, or through any interpretation of outsiders, 
many of the inhabitants feel cowboy culture constitutes a desirable 
way of life which can only be lived in an area like the Decker-Birney 



- 2 - 



Area. If the tales of the past and the current style of life are 
perceived to be a little taller and a bit more romantic than found in 
more developed areas, that perception, too, is consonant with the 
rugged individualism associated with life on the high plains. Cowboy 
culture lives in the perceptions of inhabitants and outsiders. It is 
a social force which must be taken into account in order to understand 
much local behavior. At the same time, cowboy culture forms the 
backdrop against which issues associated with development can be 
discussed since the continued existence of cowboy culture may be in 
jeopardy due to perceived potential impacts of projected development. 

The influence of this way of perceiving their lives and the 
factors effecting their lives is nowhere more clearly made than in 
matters associated with planning, development and control. Development, 
as will be demonstrated in chapter 2 , means coal mining to this area. 
The broader aspects of development at issue elsewhere such as land use 
planning, green belts, maximum elevation for building, and new towns 
are of little concern in this rural setting. Accustomed to a provencial 
outlook in which issues emerge almost solely through personal experience 
with a local problem, most Decker-Birney residents have had little 
reason to dwell upon development as it exists as an issue in other 
locations. Self interest related to mining perceived by residents 
weighs heavily to explain whether development is seen as desirable 
or undesirable. See Figure t for a map of the study area. 



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- 4 - 



MONTANA, THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT AND RESOURCE USE 

Montana's future is very dependent on the utilization and 

proper management of its natural environment. Her streams and rivers 

are still comparatively pure, her air is still pristine, and her views 

spectacular. These physical attributes of the state are highly prized 

by her population. 

Large-scale industrialization, typical of so many states, has 

passed Montana by, due largely to marketing reasons. The Montana State 

Department of Health and Environmental Sciences (1973:1) made the 

following analysis of Montana's industries: 

Primary industries in Montana are almost totally extractive 
and the sites at which they exist are also the sites at which 
the greatest abuse of environmental quality and the greatest 
examples of social problems attendant upon unplanned industrial- 
ization are apparent. The redeeming characteristic of this 
situation is that these problems, while recognizable, are also 
still manageable. 

The citizens of Montana and their legislative representatives are 

involved in the biggest period of decision making that has faced the 

state. The strippable reserves of coal in Montana calculated to be 

more than 42.5 billion tons (Matson, 1974:2) are the targets for 

massive development. The extraction of Montana's strippable coal is 

underway with five strip mines - Peabody, Western Energy, Knife River, 

Decker and Westmorland - operating in eastern Montana. These mines 

produced 10,721,413 tons of coal in 1973, and have a projected output of 

14,357,000 tons for 1974, and 20,800,000 tons for 1975. (Montana Energy 

Advisory Council, 1974:28). As a result, the natural resources and 

environment of Montana are being placed in trade-offs between "goods 



- 5 - 



and bads." As stated in the Situation Report of the Montana Coal Task 

Force (1973:6), the pollution -environmental problems facing Montana: 

"... can be summed up in the proposition that benefits 
are generally produced jointly with detriments. To fully con- 
sider all trade-offs between 'goods and bads' when decisions 
are made is difficult because of scientific uncertainty, a 
(human) tendency to suppress negative information, and the 
consistent failure of our mixed market price system to properly 
assess and assign the costs of the 'bads.' Therefore, there 
may exist a tendency to overestimate the 'goals,' and according 
to economist Kenneth Boulding ' . . . indulge in processes of 
production that producetoo many bads per good'." 

The present Montana need is for knowledge. Factual information 
on which to base decisions concerning the impact of this technology 
on Montana agriculture, environment, ecology, and economics is of 
vital importance to residents of the state. Planners and adminis- 
trators need to know the public's opinion and to get private citizens 
to participate in the decisions to be made that will affect resource 
use. 

Statement of the Problem 

The purpose of this study was to identify attitudinal 
predelictions and to develop a description of environmental orientations 
held by residents of the three counties of Eastern Montana (Big Horn, 
Powder River, and Rosebud) that will be affected if strip mining of 
federally owned coal is allowed in the Decker-Birney Area. The 
descriptions will aid in better understanding the philosophical 
motivations of residents as they wrestle with the pros and cons of 
coal development and help develop better public education strategies 



- 6 



centered around energy issues. 

Need for the Study 

In May of 1972, the Bureau of Land Management, and the United 
States Forest Service (Custer National Forest), in cooperation with 
the State of Montana, began the task of compiling a comprehensive 
multi-resource analysis of the Decker-Birney Study Area which is 
located in southeastern Montana. The Decker-Birney Study Area as shown 
on the location map Figure 1, encompasses 900,000 acres, approximately 
79,000 of which are administered by the B.L.M. , 153,000 acres by the 
U.S.F.S., and 48,000 acres by the State of Montana. The remaining 
surface acreage comprising approximately 620,000 acres of the unit is 
in private ownership. 

The Decker-Birney Area is considered one of the most valuable 
areas in Montana for low-sulfur coal. According to the Montana Bureau 
of Mines and Geology (B.L.M. and U.S.F.S., 1972:13) "there are 227,880 
acres (12 billion tons), of strippable coal in the planning area." 
The federal government is coming under considerable pressure from 
private industry to allow development to take place. The reason for 
the pressure is that the federal government has mineral ownership 
rights to 788,957 acres of the approximately 900,000 acre study area. 
The following table gives the breakdown of acres by ownership within 
the study area (B.L.M. and U.S.F.S., 1972:21). 



- 7 - 



Table 1. Mineral Ownership by Acres 



Owner Surface Ownership Mineral Ownership Strippable Coal 



Federal 


232,169 


State 


48,000 


Private 


618,540 



788,957 209,160 

48,000 8,760 

61,752 9,960 



Presently, the Decker Coal Company is operating a strip coal 
mining operation on 26,870 acres it has under coal lease from the state 
within the study area. However, if the federal government decides to 
allow further development of the mineral resource to take place, the 
number of companies operating within the study area will increase 
rapidly. Based on data gathered to date, the Bureau of Land Management 
has proposed that 119,000 acres (6.7 billion tons) be considered for 
lease for strip mining in the upper Tongue River area in Montana; the 
lease recommendations would open up six new areas to massive strip 
mining operations. If the six areas identified were to be totally 
mined, 51 ranch operations would be directly affected including 45 
wells, 92 springs, 144 reservoirs, 6,085 acres of cultivated land and 
113,395 acres of rangeland strip mined. (B.L.M. and U.S.F.S., 1974:8) 
With the recommendation for leasing the Bureau of Land Management has 
identified four possible levels of development which are shown in 
Table 2. (Northern Plains Resource Council, 1974:1) 



- 8 - 



Table 2. Possible Levels of Coal Development 



Development 
Level 



Extent of 
Activity 



Total 
Population 
Increase 



Peak 

Construction 

Population 



Export only 
Low Development 



up to 6 mines 

3 power plants 
and 1 export mine 



Medium Development 3 power plants 

2 gasification 
plants 



High Development 



3 power plants 
9 gas plants 
12 export mines 



9,540 
7,890 

24,822 
79,409 



12,000 
15,000 

50,000 
150,000 



Before development is allowed, the federal government is 
required by law to exhaustively explore all factors needed to meet the 
requirements of the federal agencies land use planning process. The 
research conducted in this study has provided information regarding 
population values and attitudes associated with development for 
inclusion in the land use planning system. 

Questions to be Answered 

Although people have a variety of opinions about coal develop- 
ment and its environmental impact, do they react to this situation 
according to some pattern or type of response? If so, is there more 
than one type that can be identified? How are these types different 



- 9 - 



from one another and how are they similar? What kinds of persons are 
associated with each type? For example, are ranchers associated with 
one attitude type and businessmen with another? Does land ownership 
have any bearing on how people feel about coal development? What 
relationship is there between age, sex, and socio-economic stratifica- 
tions and attitudes towards coal development? Can patterns be seen in 
the attitudes about coal development portrayed by a certain type that 
could be changed or influenced by educational programs? It is these 
questions which this research has focused on. 

Limitations of the Study 

The following limitations are placed on this study: 

1. The research effort was limited to the geographic confines 
of the Decker-Birney Study Area that includes portions of Big Horn, 
Powder River, and Rosebud Counties. 

2. The results and conclusions of this study are limited to 
the population currently residing in the Decker-Birney Study Area 
although the conclusions can be generalized to similar populations 
of other counties in Eastern Montana. 

Summary 

The Decker-Birney Area of southeastern Montana has become one 
focus of pressures exerted nationally to develop strip coal mining 
operations in this region. The following newspaper accounts focus on 
the pressures that are mounting. Joseph P. Brennan, the vice-president of 



- 10 - 



economics and planning for the National Coal Association, revealed 
(Billings Gazette, 1974:11) that the coal industry hopes to double its 
bituminous coal production in the next decade to meet the nation's 
energy needs in 1985. Mr. Brennan attacked proposed legislation by 
Montana's Senator Mike Mansfield, which would ban strip mining on lands 
where the federal government owns the mineral rights and another party 
owns the surface rights. 

Paul Schmechel, vice-president and general manager of the 
Western Energy Company, while testifying before a senate subcommittee 
made these remarks (Billings Gazette, 1974:3): "The alternatives to 
surface mining of western coal lands including federal lands, would 
result in a failing economy and unemployment levels that would not be 
acceptable to the people of this nation." 

Before any decisions are made, the federal government and the 
state of Montana are Jointly compiling a comprehensive multi-resource 
analysis of the Decker-Birney Area. This research will help 
to identify the attitudinal parameters (to include examination of the 
issues, hopes, fears, goals, and values) of the population in the 
Decker-Birney Area. This information will be used as input in the 
land use planning system. 

Theoretical Perspective 

Perhaps the fundamental concern to sociology is the form social 
organization extant in a social system. Corollary to this is the matter 
of the variety of social control operating within the social organization. 



- 11 - 



Thi9 paper will be concerned with the perceptions of persons classified 
according to social controls and restraints, as they relate to attitudes 
toward land use planning and toward development and appropriate repre- 
sentatives in the social decision making process. In conlunction with 
these attitudes basic values mediating will be presented as intermediate 
variables concerning perceptions related to development and representa- 
tion. 

The intention of this report ia to describe and analyze responses 
obtained from residents in the Decker-Birney Planning unit of 
Southeastern Montana. The questions asked in lengthy interviews were 
directed toward the attitudes and values of Decker-Birney residents 
regarding satisfaction with the area, their lives vis-a-vis the area 
and changes which have occurred or which are anticipated by respondents. 
More specifically, resident satisfaction is expressed in term3 of the 
availability of goods, services and conditions of life in the area 
and elsewhere. Anticipated changes are more specifically related to 
the development of coal and attendant changes which already have begun 
and which many residents feel will determine the future character of 
the area. 

The author has attempted to accurately and dispassionately report 
the responses of residents. This is no simple task for the information 
provided by residents does net always lend itself to accurate description 
for persons holding other beliefs or values. 



- 12 - 



Probably the most acknowledged differences which exist between 
types of persons are compositional and distributional socio-demographic 
characteristics. That is the age, sex and race of persons denote 
different role opportunities within the social structure. (Boque, 1969) 
To the extent that opportunities are differentially closed along socio- 
demographic composition and distribution then differences in beliefs 
and values might be expected if as an example, young persons have been 
noted as having different activities and beliefs than their elders under 
certain conditions. Similarly, women and black persons have been 
reported to differ in their attitudes along certain dimensions of 
beliefs from men, and white persons, respectively. These socio- 
demographic characteristics, then, perhaps represent the most elementary 
manner of identifying the restraints which may effect beliefs and 
activities of persons. 

Another important set of dimensions along which respondents as 
types of persons may be categorized involve their socio-economic 
relationships. Persons are often influenced in more direct manners 
through the interactions they have as a consequence of activities in 
which they participate. Although socio-deraographic characteristics 
influence participation, participation is in part independent of socio- 
demoRraphic composition. Among the most important interactions are 
those involving rather formal placement into the economic structure, 
the educational structure and the occupational structure. More 
particularly, individuals hold occupations, have obtained levels of 



- 13 - 



education and have some occupational status. These factors, are similar 
to socio-demographic composition characteristics in the sense that they 
provide peripheral information about each respondent. They differ in that 
each reflects some achievement within the opportunity structures available. 

The relationship between the variables described in the preceeding 
paragraphs may be thought of in the following diagrammatic manner. 



INDEPENDENT VARIABLES 



I SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC 

Characteristics : 
Composition 

a. Age 

b. Sex 



* 



II SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC 

Characteristics: 
Distribution 



c. Marital Status 

d. Number of Children 



I ATTITUDES TOWARD PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT MEASURES 

a. Satisfaction 

b. Coal Development and Planning 

c. Other Development and Planning 




a. Where respondents grew up 

b. How long respondents have 
resided in study area 

c. Where respondents currently 
live (rural vs town) ^ 



DEPENDENT VARIABLES 



/ 



II UTILIZATION OF AREA MEASURES 

a. Attraction to Area 

b. Ownership Measures 

c. Personal Acquaintance 



T 



III SOCIO-ECONOMIC 

Characteristics: 

a. Income 

b. Occupation 

c. Education 



- 14 - 



The directionality expresses the temporal priority among the 
variables rather than relative predictive importance. The findings 
will indicate, in fact, that some measures of a single affiliation might 
be a more powerful predictor than the entire set of indicators for 
socio-demographic characteristics. The independent importance of these 
variables is the primary thrust of the investigation in subsequent 
chapters. The assumption, to reiterate, is that attitudes regarding 
planning will be held as a consequence of the controls and constraints 
operating on each set of variables. The object of the analysis is to 
provide insight into some of the factors which help to distinguish 
the values regarding planning expressed by respondents. 



- 15 - 



Chapter 2 

THE CONCEPT OF DEVELOPMENT: ASSOCIATED ISSUES, 
LOCAL HISTORY AND A REVIEW OF T?HE LITERATURE 

Although planning of towns and cities has occupied men through- 
out history, planning in the country has received far less attention. 
(Brown and Sherrard, 1969) Those few attempts at creating Utopian designs 
in rural areas generally have been dedicated to the optimal use of one 
persons estate. The three field English manor or Jefferson's plans for 
the Monticello property are noteworthy examples. Unlike city and town 
planning, however, rural plans optimize rural land use for a single owner 
rather than for all citizens. This traditional approach was and may 
continue to be sound in areas where development alternatives to agrarian 
production are minimal. In areas with probable alternative development 
more universal planning may be more appropriate in order to assure 
diversified land use patterns, adequate benefits from competing resource 
use alternatives and aesthetically desirable development. Moreover, 
the criteria for desirable rural planning are more difficult to specify 
than for the city. 

Adopting a plan is but the final step of a lengthy process, Even 
after extensive effort has permitted a comprehensive analysis of an 
area and the issues involved with its development, the optimal 
resolution of the information through a plan will be difficult to 
arrive at. Plans follow directly and obviously from information in 
only the rarest and simplest cases. The more usual plans reflect an 



- 16 - 



attempt to optimize development for competing and frequently mutally 
exclusive sets of interests. In some cases the decision to develop 
may ultimately spell the end of an indigenous economy and style of 
life. When analysis of physical, economic and social factors indicate 
such a radical effect, decision makers defining and implementing a 
plan must be certain that best interests of the public are being served. 
Most planning texts indicate the need to optimize public interest. As 
one author succinctly puts it, "Should local interests conflict with 
national interests, national interests will need to take precedence." 
(Brown and Sherrard, 1969, p. 349) However, the thorny questions of 
how operating in the local interests may ultimately compose the 
national interest is scarcely mentioned in texts. For this reason, 
among others, a general plan based on universal rules applicable to 
all potential development would allow the use of areas to be determined 
with a minimum of conflict and with a maximum of stable expectation. 
Following this recommendation, the national interest would be defined 
before actual development. Hence, the piecemeal development which now 
occurs, often under the guise of serving the national interest, might 
be reduced. In any case, persons living in areas of potential development 
would do so with full knowledge that the location might radically change. 
With this knowledge, local persons could plan for the future rather than 
experiencing the trauma of unanticipated change. 

Although an ethic of preservation of land has competed with the 
philosophy of unrestricted development as early as the writings of 



- 17 - 



John Muir, not until the contributions of Aldo Leopold did this ethic 
receive much empirical justification. Following these authors, among 
many early environmentalists, have been efforts by others to implement 
the preservation ethic to land use. (Leopold, 1952) Most of those 

efforts have been directed toward establishing or maintaining wilderness 
and semi-wilderness areas. A second major effort has been to establish 
direction around urban areas. Ethic of preservation has been utilized 
in both sets of instances in order to insure that attributes perceived 
as valuable to respective proponents are maintained. Still, most land 
use planning being so directed, ignores the issues related to proper uses 
of land in those vast areas which are most often private agricultural 
property lying beyond the cities. These lands, among which are included 
in the Decker-Birney Area, largely have escaped attention because 
they were neither the localities of masses of peoples whose activities 
necessitated guidelines for optional use nor the pristine lands roman- 
ticised in the hearts and minds of a populace which rarely if ever 
visits them. Rather, these lands were lands which had viable use 
through agricultural production. As commodities, the semi-laissez- 
faire philosophy of allowing market forces to determine the best use 
of the land, has continued to the present. However, now that the 
justification of land use planning has evolved through the preservation 
of other types of environments and now that immense problems related to 
development are beginning to arise in areas due to rather unrestricted 
philosophies of progress seems like an opportune time to develop 



- 18 - 



philosophy and fact around land use planning in the historically 
unplanned areas. 

The Issues associated with land use development in agriculture 
areas are largely isomorphic with those in the city or the wilderness. 
That is, all three areas are arenas for competing forces of use. Land 
by its nature as real property continually fulfills functions. The 
issues of development concern whether new functions could not provide 
more (to mankind, nation, local residents or developers) than are 
being provided in the current state of development. The problem of 
land use planning which follows from this issue is how to best implement 
guidelines for assuring that optional use (s) of land be assured for 
the future. 

In any particular locality the problems will differ. The environ- 
mental characteristics will imply differing optional uses and the resi- 
dents will acknowledge differing attachments to the land and its uses. 
Following the report by the Rockefeller Brothers, (Reilly, 1973) this 
author believes that local residents not only have a morally justifiable 
place in the decision making effecting land use in their area, they 
also have an information base regarding the use of local land which exceeds 
that of many outsiders. As interested and informed participants they 
should be heard. At the same time, the personal involvement with local 
concerns may preclude knowledge of broader questions concerning land 
use planning by local residents. Consequently, knowledgeable persons 
working through appropriate agencies and legislators may serve to 



19 - 



place local problems into broader perspective which may help plan for 
land U9e in all similar areas. In conjunction with this approach 
responses reported in this paper reflect in considerable detail how 
residents in the Decker-Birney Area feel about development in their 
area and in general. Where appropriate their responses concerning 
competing controls for land use will be reported as will apparent 
paradoxes in their values associated with planning and development. 

None of the above comments are to imply that the final decision 
regarding desirable allocation of particular uses to particular lands 
is easy, even when resident satisfaction is taken into account. The 
final decision must always be wrested from a variety of inevitable 
problems. Land use necessarily derives from a combination of needs 
which can be met from lands and of legacies of use which may have 
evolved rather independently of contemporary needs. When local 
resident satisfaction is based upon life styles associated with a 
legacy then continued fulfillment may preclude obtaining otherwise 
necessary changes. Nowhere is the dilemma more evident than in the 
Decker-Birney Area. On the one hand are major spokesmen of industry 
and government maintaining that coal development is imperative. The 
negative effects are largely unstated by such spokesmen as are the 
range of alternatives to development. On the other hand are environ- 
mentalists, decrying open pit mining and electrical generation from 
coal as intrinsically injurious to life and ranchers, resisting changes 
in life and environment. This simplistic statement of the problem in 



- 20 - 



the area is in fact a summary of literally dozens of more particular 
conflicts. Any final decision to this dilemma should take a hard look 
at all factors associated with its resolution. Most important, decision 
makers must continually examine the fundamental assumptions which 
predicate the dilemma. Does a legitimate need exist? If not, the dilemma 
may further he resolved by deciding on an alternative mechanism through 
which the need may be met. Only after positively answering both of these 
questions do decision makers have to concern themselves with the relative 
merits of the positions taken by the advocates or enemies of change. 

Among the most fundamental issues underlying this research, then, deals 
with who has the right to decide on the 9tyle of land use. As Sir Henry 
Maine reflected, the urban and industrial revolutions would not have 
been possible without the redefention of land as individual property 
from the earlier notion of common property. (Lippincott, 193R) Current 
development is still based upon the concept that land use is founded 
upon how much land is worth. Consequentlv , the u9e of land is largely 
a matter of how much a potential developer wishes to spend. A new ethic 
may be occurring in contemporary society which returns land to collective 
use, if not ownership. That is, the proper development of land may be 
coming to mean the optimal social use of land rather than the use 
unilaterably decided by an owner. The issue can perhaps nowhere be 
more clearly explored than in an area where huge land tracts are owned 
by individuals who 9ee their possession as absolute. Trespass laws are 
among the obvious indications of the right of individuals to define out 
even occupying space on their land. 



- 21 - 



The freedom of each individual to compete for the development of 
each piece of property certainly does permit a system of development 
to occur. (Harriss, 1974) Unfortunately, despite the ability of 
particular individuals to define the nature of development for a piece 
of land, based upon the best rationality and information, the best 
interest of the society for an extended period may be lost during the 
competition. How, for example, can sufficient agricultural production 
be assured when prime agricultural land is converted to housing projects? 
Is the best public interest being served? How can urban slum dwellers 
break out of their residential abyss when the wealthy largely determine 
how living space will be allotted in an urban area? Or, more obtusely, 
how is the cultural value attached to the rural style of life being 
protected if corporate development of rural agricultural properties 
transforms that way of life? 

A Look at Coal Development 
With a Historic Perspective 

In June of 19 71, Carl Bagge, President of the National Coal 

Association, told his members at a Washington conference that "the '70's 

will be the decade in which coal achieves its national birthright as 

the principal energy source for the nation." (Newsweek, 1971:69) 

Mr. Bagge 's prediction did not take long to begin developing. Coal 

production in the United States as reported by the Department of 

Interior has been increasing steadily since 1964. In 1964, total 

production of soft coal output was A87 million tons; in 1968, output 



- 22 - 



was 545 million tons; and in 1975, output was estimated at 575 million 
tons. Coupled with this increase in coal output, was the increase in 
strip mined coal which Jumped from 31 percent of the output in 1964, 
to an estimated 47 percent of the output in 1972. (U.S. News and 
World Report, 19 72:77) 

With the prediction "King Coal" is coming back, the coal companies 
have begun moving west. In January of 1974, (Phillips, 1974:1015), 
a memorandum of the American Mining Congress, noting that the nation's 
biggest crunch for coal would come in the 19 75-80 period, said "the 
recognized reserves of the strip mineable areas of thick western seams 
provide the best opportunity of increasing coal production sufficient 
to meet these requirements." In January, 1973, the Montana Department 
of Fish and Game (Schneider, 1973:12) editorialized, "Evidently, the 
question of whether or not the coal will be wrenched from the earth 
has already been answered. It will. Now we as Montanans, must decide 
how we should allow it to proceed and how it should be controlled." 

By 1973, Montana's coal basin had undergone intensive leasing 
activity with seventeen leases let, embracing 37,152 acres. This does 
not include the sixteen thousand acres of Indian land that also was 
leased during that period. (Montana Coal Task Force, 1973:12) As of 
October 15, 19 74, twenty firms (Montana Energy Advisory Council, 1974: 
35-42) , had received prospecting permits for coal and were actively 
involved in exploration. The following is a list of the companies, and 
they read like a page from the stock exchange: Amax Coal, Burlington 



- 23 - 



Northern, Clay M. McCartney, Concho Petroleum, Consol, Consolidation 
Coal, Cheveron, Getty Oil, Gulf Mineral, Knife River Coal, Mobil, 
N.R.G., Peabody Coal, Phillips, Tenneco Coal, Sun Oil, Utah Interna- 
tional, Western Energy, Westmorland Resources, and John S. Wold. As 
of date, the following companies are operating strip mines in Montana: 
Consolidation Coal Company, a subsidiary of Continental Oil Company; 
Decker Coal Company, a subsidiary of Pacific Power and Light and Peter 
Kiewit and Sons, Incorporated; Knife River Coal Company, a subsidiary 
of Montana-Dakota Utilities; Peabody Coal Company, a subsidiary of 
Kennecott Copper Corporation; Western Energy Company, a subsidiary of 
Montana Power Company; and Westmorland Coal Company, a subsidiary of 
Westmorland Resources. (Montana Coal Task Force, 1973:11) 

If Montanans do, in fact, decide the fate of the state's coal 
development, it will be a reversal of the more common process typifying 
resource exploitation within the state. K. Ross Toole, in Montana, An 
Uncommon Land, unfolds Montana's history from 16«0 to 1959. The book 
continually documents the exploitation of Montana, and the extraction 
of its natural resources. On page nine of his book, Mr. Tool states: 

Nature, not the evil designs of men, decreed that Montana 
be a place with a colonial economy. The object of men had to 
be to trap it, mine it, shoot it, and get out. Every one of 
the salient industries has been extractive, from beaver through 
beef to copper. The capital required for frantic exploitation, 
whether of fur9, cattle, silver, lumber, or copper, had to come 
from the East. And as Eastern capital flowed westward, control 
and the bulk of the wealth flowed eastward. 

Montana's growth, in one sense, has been a series of 
traumas. There has been a strikingly consistent pattern which, 
appropriately enough, conforms to the pattern of the land itself. 



- 24 - 



For every pinnacle there is an equally impressive declivity. 
For every sudden rise, a sudden fall. Optimism has alternated 
almost monotonously with despair. 

The following excerpts from Mr. Toole's book are part of the Montana 

story, and put in prespective the pattern that Montana's growth has 



taken: 



The number of stock on the Montana open range had tripled 
by 1883. The U.S. Department of Agriculture estimated that 
there were nearly 600,000 cattle and 500,000 sheep in the 
territory, the great bulk of which were east of the mountains. 

This expanding business, like the mining business, 
required capital. And once again we see the influx of outside 
money. The N Bar was backed by the Niobrara Cattle Company 
of Boston; the Concord Cattle Company of Concord, New Hampshire; 
the Green Mountain Stock Ranching Company of Minneapolis 
(formerly of Vermont); and many companies from St. Louis and 
points east .... A vast percentage of the fortunes made 
between 1879 and 1887 enriched stockholders and owners who had 
never seen Montana and knew of it only through glowing company 
reports of quick profit. The nature of the business was summed 
up by Julian Ralph, who wrote in 189 3: 

The cattle owners, or cowmen, are in Wall Street, the south 
of France, or in Florida in the winter, but their cattle are 
on the wintry fields where now and then, say once in four years, 
half of them, or 80 percent of them, or one in three (as it 
happens) starve to death because of their inability to get at 
the grass under the snow .... But the cowmen do business on 
the principle that the gains in good years far more than offset 
the losses in bad years .... (Toole, 1959 :142-U3) 

Toole goes on to say: 

Then beginning in 1897, a significant series of consoli- 
dations in the copper industry presaged a change in the entire 
basis of ownership. In the early spring of 1897 the Boston 
and Montana Company and the Butte and Boston Company effected 
a consolidation. In the same year, William Andrews Clark filed 
incorporation papers and brought his diverse corporate interests 
under one head .... 

The process caused some concern in Montana. Stockholders 
in the area were almost always minority stockholders. But at 
least in one case they proved recalcitrant. Litigation was 
initiated which placed the matter before Montana's Supreme 



- 25 - 



Court. The court held against such consolidations and stated 
that stock transfers from one company to another were illegal 
without the consent of minority stockholders. 

In January, 1899, the legislature took a hand in the 
matter, and it did so when crucial developments were on the 
near horizon. House Bill No. 132 provided for the legality of 
stock transfers without minority consent, and it was introduced 
with tremendous power behind it. With the introduction of 
this bill Montana had a glimpse into the labyrinth behind some 
of the consolidations, and Montanans learned for the first time 
that Standard Oil was in some measure involved. 

Concerning House Bill No. 132, W.A. Clark wrote to his 
close friend J.S.M. Neill : 'It is a matter of great concern 
to me. The First National Bank of New York, the Northern 
Pacific Railroad Company, Senator Carter and the Standard Oil 
people are all working hard to get this bill through and I 
am sure it will be very much to my interests if they succeed. ' 

Why was Standard Oil interested? Because they were 
planning to buy the Anaconda Company, and other Butte properties, 
and consolidate. With a great New York bank, a great railroad, 
and a great oil company aligned in concert, there was little 
doubt but that the bill would pass. It did, handily, guided 
through by the Anaconda Company's own attorney, E.D. Matts. 

This show of power alerted the governor, R.B. Smith. 
He vetoed the bill, calling it 'vicious.' He made it clear 
that he deeply resented Standard Oil's intrusion into Montana 
politics, that he saw bad things for Montana in a Standard Oil- 
owned copper combine, and then, in a peroration as vigorous 
as it was mixed in metaphor, he concluded with the statement: 
'If you do not assert your independence now and defeat this 
measure, it will be too late when the tentacles of this octopus 
have fastened their fangs on the strong limbs of this fair 
commonwealth.' But the bill passed easily over the Governor's 
veto. Anaconda became the Amalgamated Copper Company, owned 
and controlled by Standard Oil and financed by New York's 
National City Bank. (Toole 1959: 163-165) 

Although it is not correct to say that up until the 1960 's that 

the Anaconda Company and the Montana Power Company often referred to 

as "the twins", or "the company," had a monolithic control of the 

state, it is correct to say they were and still are, powerful corporate 

concerns. Frequently, the two companies have been closely identified 



- 26 - 



on que8tions of public policy. Thomas Payne wrote in a paper entitled 
"Montana: Politics Under the Copper Dome," in a book edited by Frank 
H. Jonas (1969:220), just how the influence of the Anaconda Company 
has been achieved: 

Long known for the excellence of its lobbying activities, 
Anaconda's attorneys follow with keen scrutiny the course of 
every measure under consideration by the legislature. Its 
strength rests not only in its wealth and resources, but also 
in its elaborate network of relationships with key citizens, 
banks, legal firms, and business organizations throughout the 
state. Rare is that unit of local government - county, city, 
or school district - that does not have on its policy-making 
body a person associated, in some capacity, with the Anaconda 
Company. And Anaconda men are invariably among the leaders of 
the power structure in every large community in the state. 
Until June 1959, the Anaconda network was further strengthened 
by its control of most of the leading daily newspapers. It 
should be emphasized that Anaconda has used its great power 
largely in a negative fashion - to prevent government actions 
which it opposed. 

Up until June 1, 1959, the Anaconda Company owned and published 

eight daily newspapers in the state, encompassing 55 percent of the 

total daily newspaper circulation and 60 percent of the total Sunday 

circulation. The company-owned newspapers included the Billings 

Gazette, The Livingston Enterprise, The Daily Post, The Montana 

Standard, The Anaconda Standard, The Helena Independent Record, The 

Daily Missoulian and The Missoula Sentinel. The newspaper chain was 

established between 1906 and 1929 except for the Anaconda Standard 

which was established in the 1890' s. (Jonas, 1969:211) The impact 

of the ownership of the papers by Anaconda Company is described by 

Payne (Jonas, 1969:212): 



- 27 - 



. . controversial news waa often suppressed entirely, 
when it was not buried on an inside page . . . Editorial 
policy became not only neutral, but sterile as well. A 
variety of historical, exotic, or otherwise irrelevant topics 
graced the editorial pages, constituting in all probability 
the blandest diet of editorial comment ever served to any 
group of American newspaper readers. 

It has been this type of corporate influence described 
historically that Montanans have faced perpetually. With the coming 
development of coal, corporates as large as Anaconda having histories 
just as self-serving, are moving into Montana. 

Harry M. Caudill, a lawyer who lives in Whitesburg, Kentucky, 
became a forceful spokesman for the people of Appalachia early in the 
1960 's. Since that period he has written numerous articles and books 
on strip mining in both Appalachia and other areas of the country. 
These three books, Night Comes to the Cumberlands , Dark Hills to 
Westward , and My Land is Dying , present the most complete historical 
account of strip mining and its effect on the social, political and 
economical components of the Appalachian region that have been written, 

The similarities between Montana and the Appalachian region's 
history is astounding. Mr. Caudill, in My Land Is Dying , (1971:118), 
makes this analysis: 

In fact, regional development in an area like Appalachia, 
rich in resources but improverished by exploitation, becomes 
virtually impossible when the real masters of the region are 
the corporations that own and deal in these resources. The 
unchecked power of the corporations is, of course, a matter of 
concern not for Appalachia alone. As an editorial in the 
Manchester Guardian Weekly for March 7, 1970, noted, 'Some 
already see the day - not too far off - when the giant inter- 
national corporations will be answerable to no national 
government. The new international industrial groups threaten 



- 2R - 



to grow more powerful than any one nation state. ' The same 
observer might have gone on to note that the American states 
have failed consistently and ignominiously in their occasional 
efforts to curb the sprawling enterprises that extract, manu- 
facture, and sell with mindless disregard for every consideration 
except that of corporate profit. It might further have been 
asserted that the federal government is hardly les9 ineffectual 
in dealing with conglomerate entities such as A. T. & T. or 
Standard Oil of New Jersey. We live, in short, in a society 
where a telephone call from the president of a steel corporation 
carries more influence with those in office than a petition 
signed by tens of thousands of ordinary, one-vote citizens. 

Today, strip mining is underway in twenty-six states and already 
an area twice the size of Connecticut has been stripped. (Branscome, 
1971:230) The effectiveness by which this is being accomplished is 
exemplified by the Hanna Coal Company's Gem of Egypt, a shovel with a 
two hundred ton bit, that has a boom ten stories high, and consumes more 
electricity each day than all of St. Clairsville, a town of 4,604, near 
the shovel's work site in Belmont County, Ohio. (Newsweek, 1971:69) 
In 1967, the U.S. Department of Interior sent to the Congress a detailed 
study entitled "Surface Mining and Our Environment," which gave a breakdown 
of strip mining and where it has occurred throughout the fifty states. 
In Kentucky, the total came to 127,700 acres of which five percent had 
been reclaimed. (Caudill, 1971:23, 24, 99) 

During the Western States Water and Power Consumers Conference in 
Billings, during the first week in October in 1972, Harry Caudill and 
Carl Bagges , president of National Coal Association, collided in debate. 
Newsweek (1972:81) reported the encounter in this manner: 



- 29 - 



Bagges said to the conference: 'In Appalachia, we never 
promised a rose garden. We do promise we will not create what 
Senator McGovern calls gaping wounds that never heal. In 
response, Caudill warned the conference to 'beware of your 
coal companies who say they will restore your land and leave 
it dead. ' 

In a prophetic statement in 1971, Caudill (1971:57) said "As the 
American carthage spreads west, the big names in strip mining will be 
Peabody Coal Company, Atlantic Richfield Company, Garland Coal and 
Mining Company, Pacific Power and Light Company and Consolidated Coal 
Company." Of the companies Caudill named, Montana presently has three 
of them operating strip mines. These companies come to Montana as 
industries, bringing with them records blemished with contempt, and 
disregard for the lands they have stripped in the east. These records 
only emphasize the historical and organizational contexts which have 
confronted citizens of Montana. Decker-Birney residents, being sensitive 
to this past regard such large scale development with considerable 
suspicion. 

Coal Development in Montana 

The Fort Union Coal Formation, stretching from Saskatchewan to 
Colorado, is one of the largest known coal reserves in the world. Three 
states — Montana, Wyoming and North Dakota — are alone underlain with 
one and one-half trillion tons of bituminous and sub -bituminous coal and 
lignite, twenty percent of the world's total known coal reserves and 
approximately forty percent of the known coal reserves in the United 
States. (Gill, 1972:141) In the past very little of the northern plains 



- 30 - 



coal of the Fort Union deposits have been mined, but by May, 1970, the 

need for low-sulfur coal in our major cities began changing this. 

Alvin Josephy (1973:71) describes what began to happen in the northern 

plains country: 

A large-scale rush to acquire exploration permits and leases 
for the low-sulfur coal in the northern plains — together with 
plans on how to maximize short-term and long-range profits from 
the enormous deposits — was already stirring the energy industry. 
It appeared evident that national policy guided by the industry, 
would inevitably encourage the exploitation of the western states' 
coal fields as an answer to the apparently diminishing supplies 
of fuels from elsewhere, the threat of growing dependency on the 
oil producing nations of the Middle East and power plant pollution 
in the cities. 

The Bureau of Reclamation (1971:11) in collaboration with thirty- 
five power utilities, released a study in October, 1971, entitled 
The North Central Power Study. It proposed that forty-two mine mouth 
generating plants be constructed in the northern plains area, primarily 
in Wyoming, Montana and North Dakota. The Northern Plains Resource 
Council has been gathering and synthesizing information pertinent to 
the development of the Fort Union Coal deposits and has made this 
analysis (Muller, 1972:2): 

If constructed, these power plants would produce some 
403 billion kilowatts of electricity per year, more electricity 
than is produced annually by any country in the world save the 
U.S.S.R. or the U.S. (In 1969, the U.S.S.R. produced 659 
billion kilowatts of electricity.) If constructed, such a 
complex would require 8,105 miles of right of way for trans- 
mission lines. It would require 210 million tons of coal and 
2.6 million acre feet of water each year. (The water require- 
ments of the North Central Power Project would, by the year 
2,000, exceed by 80 percent the present municipal and industrial 
water requirements of the city of New York.) If constructed, 



- 31 



this generating complex would produce more air emissions than 
both the New York City and the Los Angeles regions combined, 
even with the latest air pollution control technology. 

The estimations of the population increase that would 
accompany this project have been between 300,000 and 500,000 
people. If a population increase of this magnitude occurred, 
there would be a tremendous demand for more highways, more 
schools, more medical facilities, and more police protection. 
Once the strippable coal reserves had been expended in twenty- 
five to fifty years, the primary industry that created the 
population and economic growth would leave. 

One key to the development of the eastern Montana coal is water. 
As stated earlier, this semi-arid region is a water-short area. Most 
of the water for this area comes from the Yellowstone Basin. This 
basin drains approximately 69,100 square miles of northern Wyoming, 
southern Montana, and a small part of western North Dakota. 
(Westinghouse Electric Company, 1974:2-47) Within the Yellowstone 
Basin, river water is virtually the sole source of water for all uses. 
The primary use of the water, however, is for agriculture; in the 
Yellowstone Basin about 1.25 million acres are irrigated. (Westinghouse 
Electric Company, 1974:2-47)_ In fact, surface water sources are 
responsible for 98.6 percent of the water that is diverted in Montana. 
(Westinghouse Electric Company, 1974:2-47) 

In April, 1972, the U.S. Department of the Interior released an 
appraisal report on Montana-Wyoming aqueducts. The report represents 
extensive studies on the availability of water resources in southeastern 
Montana and northeastern Wyoming for the development of the coal 
resources in the region. Projected water requirements show that 2.6 
million acre feet may be required annually to meet a development level 



- 32 - 



that may be attained in leas than 30 years. (U.S. Department of the 

Interior, 1972:31) 

In a recent article entitled, "Water and Eastern Montana Coal 

Development" (Anderson, 1973:12-13), these observations are made: 

Analysis shows that there is adequate water in the 
Yellowstone Basin for maximum projected diversions of up 
to 2.7 million acre feet per year, but only if the main 
stem of the free-flowing Yellowstone is regulated (by 
Allenspur Dam) because of critical seasonal low flows . . . 
The Yellowstone River, however, is virtually free-flowing 
in its main stem. Because it is one of the few free-flowing 
rivers in a land of dams, reservoirs, and canals, the 
Yellowstone is both fortunate and threatened. As a natural 
aquatic phenomenon, it offers unique values. But its free- 
flowing state also makes it attractive for development. The 
proposed Allenspur site on the Yellowstone near Livingston 
is the best remaining damsite in Montana and could firm up 
1.7 mafy (2,350 cfs) for downstream industrial or agricultural 
use (2). Construction of Allenspur Dam would be one of the 
most massive impacts that could result from coal development, 
with perhaps the greatest spectrum of environmental costs. 

The proposed dam site is approximately 224 miles from Colstrip and 

would cover some of the most scenic areas of the Yellowstone River. 

Many conservation groups have pushed to have this area of the river 

included as part of the National Wild and Scenic River System. 

Development of the coal resources in Montana is well underway. 

With this rush for "black gold" a great many problems must be faced. 

Among those questions to be answered are how much development is to be 

allowed, and what tradeoffs are to be made? These questions can only be 

answered by the proper analysis and input of all those concerned. 



33 - 



Description of Montana's Ru ral Population 

The U.S. Census Bureau divides the American population into rural 
and urban people on the basis of where they reside. Persons who live 
in towns of less than 2,500 population are said to be rural, and all 
others are urban. The rural population is further dichotomized into 
rural farm and rural non-farm. Rural farm persons are defined as those 
living in the open country, and rural non-farm are those persons living 
in villages or in the open country but not on farms. (Rogers, 1960:21) 

The state of Montana has a predominantly rural population. With 
the fourth largest land mass in the United States and 694,409 residents 
Montana ranks 43rd in population density. (MacCannel, et. al., 1973:1) 
Montana's population of incorporated and unincorporated places appeared 
as shown in Table 3 during the 1970 census. (U.S. Department of 
Commerce, 19 70:9) 



laDie J. I'louuaiia a iu^uj.ohuu ^». ^..v.-^ r -» .-■ 1_ — . 


Popul 


ation 


Places 


less 


than 200 


14 


200- 


500 


25 


500- 


1,000 


2^ 


1,000- 


1,500 


21 


1,500 


2,000 


8 


2,000 


2,500 


ft 


2,500 


5,000 


15 


10,000 


25,000 


5 


25,000 


30,000 


1 


50,000 


100,000 


2 


_ 



- 34 - 



Only twenty-three of all the incorporated and unincorporated places 
have a population of two thousand five hundred people or more. The 
largest city in Montana has a population of 61,581, the second largest 
has a population of 60,091 and these are the only two standard metro- 
politan statistical areas in the entire state. (U.S. Department of 
Commerce, 1970:1-17). Thi9 low density population i9 financing the 
operation of 704 public school districts and 1,040 elementary and 
secondary schools. (Montana Data Book, 1970, Ch 7:6) 

The State Department of Health and Environmental Services 
(1973:1) has described the population of Montana in a vivid manner 
which reflects a rural-oriented living: 

Montanans reside here because they want to — employment 
opportunities are far better elsewhere. Montanans pride 
themselves on their self-reliance. They are prone to treat 
their fellow man with respect. They 9till feel that their 
problems are capable of solution and that they should solve 
these problems largely by themselves. Many Montanans are 
extremely generous with their time and devote much of it to 
the betterment of their communities and their state. 

Dr. Carl Kraenzel, a former professor of rural sociology at Montana 
State University, gave the following description of the rural popu- 
lation of the Plains area of Montana (Kraenzel, et. al . , 1966:47): 

To live and survive in this sparsely populated area, 
people need to be reasonably self-sufficient; if one lives 
40 miles from town and can't start his car, it is necessary 
to cope with the situation by oneself. One cannot obtain 
or afford to have service people come and start the car. 
Self-sufficiency is not only a necessity but a value and an 
expectation of the residents. 

Since status of people has most often been acquired via 
the work role, this self-sufficiency element has been a factor 
in assigning top-level status to those who manage on their own. 
This can be defined as an element in the extraordinary individual- 
ism of the residents of the sparsely settled area. 



- 35 - 



The thirty-seven county area east of the Rocky Mountains 
described by Dr. Kraenzel as the Plains area of Montana is a semi- 
arid land receiving an average of twenty inches or less of precipi- 
tation annually. Temperature variations in the Plains are more extreme 
than in other parts of the nation. For instance, a blizzard may be 
followed in a matter of hours by a chinook that completely melts the snow. 
The significant thing for the Plains region is the low average crop 
season rainfall that is at or below the margin of successful agriculture 
as practiced in most parts of the world. (Kraenzel, 1955:12-17) 

Because of the harsh unpredictable climate, a dry-land farming 
system of crop management and agronomic practices were developed to 
meet the requirements of climate and precipitation of this area. Dry- 
land farming is a method of building moisture reserves. Crops are grown 
with one year's precipitation and one or two years of stored moisture 
from previous non-cropping years. This type of agriculture has given 
rise to residents with definite characteristics. Island-like 
communities have grown up that are separated from each bv distance 
and available moisture. Kraenzel (1964:1-2) identified three adapted 
patterns by the population for successful living in the Plains region: 
1) building of reserves, 2) diversification of operations, and 3) flex- 
ibility. These characteristics only add to the description of the 
rural Montana-an-individualist. 

Decker-Birney Study Area 

The northern plains encompasses parts of Montana, Wyoming, North 



- 36 - 



Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska and Wyoming. (Stoddard and Smith, 
1955:372) This area has a beauty of its own, and Alvin Josephy 
(1973:71) describes it eloquently: 

One of the most serene and least spoiled and polluted 
sections of the nation, it averages about 4,000 feet above 
sea level and stretches below the Canadian border roughly 
from the Badlands and Black Hills in the east to the Bighorn 
Mountains in the west. It is a huge, quiet land of semi-arid 
prairies, swelling to the horizon with yellow nutritious 
grasses; rich river valleys, lined with irrigated farms, low 
mountains, buttes, and rimrock ridges dark with cedar and 
ponderosa pine; open, windswept plains covered with sagebrush, 
greasewood, and tumbleweek; and hundreds of meandering creeks 
edged with stands of cottonwoods. The rains average only 12 
to 14 inches a year, the topsoil is thin and fragile, easily 
eroded and blown or washed away, and the vegetation in most 
places must struggle for life. Towns and cities are small and 
few and far between, and distances measured along the infre- 
quent highways and ribbons of railroad track are great. For 
almost a hundred years the natural grasses and irrigated hay- 
fields have sustained big flocks of sheep and herds of cattle, 
and the region has been one essentially of large, isolated 
ranches and farms, whose owners have fought endlessly against 
blizzards, drought, high winds, and grasshoppers -- and have 
treasured their independence and the spaciousness and natural 
beauty of their environment. 

We forget all too easily that this part of the United States was the 
last to be settled. The Plains Indians held this country until 
General George Cook's campaign in 1876. By the end of the vear 1876, 
most of the Indians were removed from their ancestral homeland and 
were forced to live on reservations. This resulted in a virtual 

vacuum which was first filled by the buffalo hunters who were in turn 

replaced by white occupation and domestic animals. 

The geographical features and history of the settlement of the 

75-80 square mile area called the Decker-Birney Study Area parallels 



- 37 - 



that described above. The important physical features of the study area 

includes the Tongue River, Otter Creek and Rosebud Creek Drainages 

which dissect the region in a south-north direction. King Mountain, 

Poker Jim Butte, Wild Hog Butte, and Horse Creek Butte are situated in 

the northeastern part of the area, and the Tongue River Reservoir is 

located in the southwestern part of the area. The lowest elevation of 

two thousand nine hundred feet is adjacent to the Tongue River near 

Ashland, while the highest point of four thousand three hundred feet 

is forty miles to the south along the Montana-Wyoming state line. 

(B.L.M. and U.S.F.S., 1974:1) Figures 2, 3, and 4 illustrate the 

variety of vegetative habitats and physical features of the study area. 

Settlement in the Decker-Birney Area along the Tongue River seems 

to have begun around the year 1882. The historical account of Powder 

River County (1967:20) portrayed in the book Echoing Footsteps states: 

Some of our early stockmen here, such as Charley Huckins 
and Charley Decker, hunted buffalo as a profession before they 
acquired a ranch and cattle. The last herds seen in this area 
are reported to have been cleaned up by the year 1882. 

The Homestead Act of 1862, sanctioned the idea that every family 

should have an opportunity to own a 160 acre parcel of land if they 

had the ambition to live on it and care for it. Settlers first 

moving into the northern great plains soon found that wasn't enough 

land to make a living on in this semi-desert country. As a result, 

Congress in 1911, passed the "enlarged" Homestead Act, allowing the 

grassland settler three hundred twenty acres which again proved 

inadequate, so Congress doubled the ante with the "stock-raising" 



- 38 - 




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41 - 



Homestead Act of 1916. (Parson, 1972:298) These homestead acts 
played an important part In the settling of the Decker-Birney Area. 
Historically the area is very rich. About six miles from the town of 
Birney, located on Burton Brewster's Ranch is an old battlefield where 
General Miles fought the Cheyennes and the Ogallalas in the Battle of 
the Butte on January 8, 1877. Crazy Horse, Little Big Man, White Bull, 
Two Moon, and Spotted Wolf were some of the Indian Chiefs involved with 
the battle. Charles B. Erlanson, (1963:21) a historian who wrote about 
the battle, described it as a very important battle psychologically as 
it showed the white man's capability to carry on a winter campaign. 
The Rosebud Battlefield is another interesting site in the Decker-Birnev 
Area. Ken Walcheck (1973:18) gives this account: 

While pushing north with some 1,300 men, General Crook ran 
into a superior force of between 2,000 and 5,000 Sioux and 
Cheyenne. The army shot more than 25,000 rounds of ammunition 
and authorities on the battle estimate the hostiles shot three 
to four times as much. The Montana Historical Society estimates 
Crook's losses at 10 killed and 21 wounded. 

Crook weathered the onslaught of perhaps the most fear- 
some aggregate of spirited fighters ever to assemble on a 
battlefield. Historians say Crook thought he had met the 
entire Sioux nation and began withdrawing and fighting on 
the defensive as he slowly retreated to his base camp near 
Sheridan, Wyoming. Eight days later when Custer met the same 
forces, Crook's troops were unable to assist. 

Other battles such as the Battle of Wolf Mountain, the Crow and 

Assininboine Battle and the battle site of Hanging Woman Creek, remain 

as traces of the historical development of this area. 

Being cattle country, the Decker-Birney Area had its run-in 

with sheepmen in 1892. Eleven masked men destroyed a band of three 



Ul - 



thousand sheep that were camped on land that belonged to the Circle 

Bar Ranch owned by the late Captain Calvin Howes (former sea captain 

who left the ocean in the late 1870's to learn the cattle business). 

It was about this time that the sheepmen tried to drive the cattlemen 

out of the country. (Powder River County, 1967:148) Many of the 

residents that are in the eighty to one hundred year bracket can 

vividly describe coming to settle in this region on horse drawn wagons 

filled with barb wire and will readily discuss the various accounts of 

the run-ins with the sheepmen. 

Today in 1975 the Decker-Birney Area is still only accessible 

by gravel roads. It is a little piece of America that reflects a life 

style and value system that has been lost over the years. It's an area 

where people place a high value on individualism, family life, and 

neighbors help each other out of friendship. A statement was made by 

one individual I talked with that sets the tone of impending 

development: "I haven't locked a door in my house or taken the key out 

of any of my vehicles in 50 years, but I may live to see the day that 

I do." Money and greed are beginning to work their way into the 

communities. Individuals owning deeded coal are becoming instant 

millionnaires. However, not all residents are ready to give up without 

a fight. Mrs. Carolyn Alderson, a rancher's wife from Birney, gives 

voice to the way many residents feel (Josephy, 1973:101) 

To those of you who would exploit us, do not underestimate 
the people of this area. Do not make the mistake of lumping 
us and the land all together as overburden and dispense with us 



- 43 - 



as nuisances. Land is historically the central issue in any war. 
We are the descendants, spiritually, if not actually, of those 
who fought for this land once and we are prepared to do it again. 
We intend to win. 

This spirit and desire to protect the land and its heritage is very 
real among the residents of this area. During the summer of 1974, it 
manifested itself again as portrayed in Figure 5. 

Summary 

Rapid development of coal is underway in Montana as energy self- 
sufficiency is being sought for in the United States. The development 
of the coal in eastern Montana has produced a very real Montana crisis, 
a crisis perceived by many to alter or destroy the economic base of the 
state — its natural resources. The Decker-Birney Study Area is but a 
small part of the northern plains area that sits atop of the coal rich 
Fort Union Formation. However, its rural population exemplifies the highly 
individualistic type of residents that live and work in thig vast area 
and whose value systems still portray that of the earlier generations. 

Aa the concept of planning is addressed no decision maker should 
neglect to ask what the best long term use of every piece of land should 
be. Unless this question is asked first, no reasonable answer can be 
given to the question of how a particular piece of land, should be used. 
These are difficult but essential questions because they force the 
decision maker to develop a philosophy of resources development, land 
uaes and desirable qualities of life. This philosophy presumably would 
be built upon pluralistic uses rather than monopolistic ones. Therefore, 



- 44 - 



the decision maker is encouraged to lustify the long run valup in 
Treservlne diversity rather than ODtins» for a short run decision 
based on oxoedience. Only when the commonweal is defined for thp 
distant future should chanp.es in the U9es of land and the development 
of resources be permitted. 







_ THE US. GOVT..RECOItlENDS 
(I ^TRIP MINING 

if HE DIVIDE NORTH OF HERE 

<^ -COTTON )N' IL 

L/ D jr. i PITTH ^E ' : 'CT ,*£ 

™ CVJY ,N CPFEKC^l . RUTH JORDAN jK 














Fipure 5. Coal reposition Heoicted 



- 45 - 



Chapter 3 
RESEARCH PROCEDURES 

Introduction 

No one favors environmental degradation or indiscriminate use 
of our natural resources. Opinion polls, public statements, and hard 
research have all attested to the urgency of effective environmental 
policy. However, what constitutes "effective environmental policy" is, 
and will continue to be, a source of conflict. A study by the 
Institute of Government Affairs at the University of California states 
this dilemma very eloquently (Constantini , et. al., 1971:1): 

. . . the very agreement on the value of environmental 
quality dissipates into disagreement as to what constitutes 
pollution, how much of it we can or should tolerate, and 
what price we are willing to pay to deal with it. Viewed 
in this light, environmental degradation, like beauty appears 
to be in the eye of the beholder. Little wonder that although 
science and technology — in many respects villains in this 
modern morality play — document the various manifestations 
of environmental degradation and promise us the means of 
dealing with many of these problems, defacement of the 
environment continues. Different people have different 
interests, they value different things or even the same thing 
differently; they have different priorities; and therefore, 
they see the same slice of the environment from different 
perspectives. 

In a front page story in the Billings Gazette on May 26, 1974, a 

coal leasing expert, James Cannon of New York, told Montana state 

officials that "renewed leasing by the Interior Department next fall 

will test resistance in Montana to creation of a 'national sacrifice' 

area for strip mining in a large part of eastern Montana." He further 

stated that "leasing probably will open in the Decker-Birney Area 

before 1975." 



46 - 



Inevitablv the question of whether the federal coal located in the 
900,000 acre Decker-Birney study area of southeastern Montana will be 
9trip rained la a political one. Thia study has attempted to identify 
and analyze the attitudes of the population within the study area and 
to develop a typology of environmental orientations that will be of use 
in affecting environmental policy making for this area and to provide 
some recommendations for energy education programs. In the remainder 
of this cahpter the procedures used in the collection, organization, 
and presentation of data obtained in this investigation are discussed. 

Population Description and Sample Selection 

The Decker-Birney Study Area as shown on the location map (Figure 1, 
page 4) encompasses 900,000 acres. The study area includes oortions of 
Big Horn, Powder River and Rosebud Counties and a part of the Custer 
National Forest and the Miles City Bureau of Land Management District. 
Settlements within the area having full-time residents are Ashland, 
Birney, Decker and Kirby. Ashland has the largest population of the 
settlements, with over 350 residents. The population of Birney, Decker 
and Kirby settlements combined is less than 80 residents. The entire 
population within the study area is calculated to be approximately 
1,000 persons. (B.L.M. and U.S.F.S., 1974:1) 

During June of 1974 a list of the entire population of households 
permanently residing within the Decker-Birney Study Area was prepared. 
This list was compiled by integrating existing land ownership lists, 
voter registration lists, school registration, public utility subscribers 



- 47 



and from extensive discussions with long term residents, of the names 
and homesites of residents. The author feels reasonably confident that 
all households in the area were located. In fact, as interviewing 
began it became evident that a few listed households were not permanent 
residents in the area. Consequently, a rule was established that: if 
persons listed did not reside more in the Decker-Birnev Area than at 
any other location they were not to be treated as permanent residents. 
Upon applying this rule the list of 298 households was established. 
No statistical sample was drawn for the interviewing because a 
complete census by family unit of permanent residents was accomplished 
during the data gathering stage of the research. Either the husband 
or the wife was interviewed, depending on whoever wanted to represent 
the family. In all cases it was made clear that if the husband or wife 
had differing views both could receive an interview. This occurred in 
only one case. Because seasonal help is prevalent during calving and 
haying, any person who had not lived in the area for one year was not 
considered a permanent resident. Bachelors and widows were considered 
as a family unit. A minimum of three times was set for trying to locate 
or set up an interview with a family unit before thev were classified 
as unable to reach. Table 4 presents the family unit population in 
tabulated form and the interviewing success. 



- 48 - 



Table A. Breakdown of Family Units Interviewed 



Category Number Percent 



Family units interviewed 250 86.91% 

Famtlv units reacting an interview 32 10.747 

Family units unable to reach 7 2.357, 



Total 298 100.007 



A total of 134 men or 51.7 percent, and 125 women or 48.3 percent, 
completed the interview for the family unit. 

Method of Collecting Data 

A 288 item questionnaire (See Appendix B) , composed largely of 
five point Likert-type statements, was developed by an interdiscinlinary 
team of researchers composed of the authors and Or. Raymond Cold and 
members of his staff of the Institute for Social Science Research at 
the University of Montana. The items included in the questionnaire 
were developed from fieldwork carried out by Dr. Gold, 
related fieldwork by Dr. Pat Jobes, and items of specific interest to 
the investigators and decision makers. 

Between May 15 and 24, 1974, fieldworkers met with a number of 
individuals and groups in the study area, and with agency peoole 
(State of Montana Department of Natural Resources, Rureau of Land 



- 49 - 



r 



Management, United States Forest Service), in Helena and Billings for 
the purpose of seeking suggestions for the kinds of questions to be 
used in the questionnaire. An effort was made to receive input from 
representatives of socio-economic groups having differing viewpoints, 
which included construction workers, miners, ranchers, teachers, 
businessmen, ranchhands, and others. From June 11 through 18, 1974 
Dr. Gold and Alice Sterling, from the Institute of Social Science 
Research, pre-tested a draft of the questionnaire in Birney, Forsyth, 
and Colstrip. Each item on the questionnaire was reviewed in detail 
during the pre-test period for working, relevancy, and understanding. 
As a result, deletions and additions of questions were made. On June 
19, 19 74, the final draft of the questionnaire was agreed upon at a 
meeting in Billings with all the researchers involved in developing 
the questionnaire. The final draft was then sent to Bozeman, Montana, 
for typing and reproduction. 

On June 26, 1974, the authors conducted a two day training session 
in Birney with the three local residents hired to help conduct the 
interviewing for the Decker-Birney Study. On July 30, 19 74, three 
additional interviewers were brought in to perform the interviews in 
Ashland and its immediate vicinity. Interviewing began on June 28, 
1974, and was completed September 10, 1974. A total of 259 interviews 
were completed representing 86.91 percent of the family units in the 
study area. Over ten thousand miles were driven by the interviewers 
during the data collecting stage. 



- 50 - 



On the average, each interview schedule took between one and a 
half to two hours to administer, with four hours representing the 
extreme. The questionnaire contained both structured and unstructured 
questions covering a wide range of areas designed to shed light on 
attitudes about coal development, land use planning, social impacts, 
and preception of environmental problems in both the DScker-Birney 
Study Area and the surrounding area. During the interview, each 
question and response was read by the interviewer and the reply 
recorded. The interviews were scheduled ahead of time by the author, 
either by telephone or personal contact. An identification number was 
assigned to each questionnaire to enable ea9y analvsis of the data. 

For further analysis of other aspects of this questionnaire the 
reader is referred to the following publications: Community Service 
Program, "Social Impact of Existing and Proposed Coal Development: 
A Survey of the Rosebud County Study Area Residents," August 10, 1974, 
University of Montana, Missoula, Montana; Energy Planning Division, 
Montana State Department of Natural Resources and Conservation, "Draft 
Environmental Impact Statement on Colstrip Electric Cenerating Units 
3 and 4, 500 Kilovolt Transmission Lines and Associated Facilities, 
"Volume 1, Summary, November 1974, Helena, Montana. 
Analysis of Data 

The quantity of data generated through interviewing was so 
large that data analysis would have been extremely difficult to 
complete without adequate computer and programming help. The recent 



51 - 



I 



I 



adoption of the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) , 
a system of computer programs, and the Biomedical Computer Programs, 
to the Sigma 7 computer at Montana State University permitted a rapid 
listing and computation of the immense quantities of data. The data 
was punched on IBM cards directly from the interview schedule as the 
schedules had card and column numbers designated on them for easy 
transfer. The cards were then verified, a procedure that took nearly 
two months because of the large volume of cards. Upon completion of 
key punching and verifying, the data was then transferred to disks and 
processed through a data cleaning program called HOBIT to eliminate 
any errors yet undetected. 

Two subprograms - CODEBOOK and FASTABS - were used from SPSS to 
generate the descriptive statistics used to describe how respondents 
generally viewed each question and to infer relationships between the 
characteristics of respondents and the nature of responses. The 
subprogram CODEBOOK computes and presents tables containing, 
(1) simple frequencies, (2) relative frequencies with missing values 
included or excluded, and (3) cumulative adjusted frequencies for 
categorial data. This subprogram also computes the mean, median, mode, 
standard deviation, variance, kurtosis, skewness, and range for each 
table. For the purposes of this research, the relative frequencies and 
percentages of distribution were the only part of the statistics 
provided that were used. 

Data analysis proceeded through several phases. Upon completion 
of keypunching and verifying, information was transferred to disks. 



- 52 - 



Information was then processed through data cleaning programs to 
eliminate any errors vet undetected. Summaries of responses and 
descriptive statistics (mean, median, mode, percentage, standard 
deviation, variance etc.) were then run for responses to each question. 
Response categories were then recoded where appropriate in order to 
assure valid categories as well as sufficient cases per category to 
perform subsequent statistics. A listing of all questions asked in 
the interview as well as the number of responses to each question are 

provided in Appendix A. 

Since information was collected from a population, rather a sample 
of population, the decision was made to compute measures of association 
rather than tests of significance. (Anderson and Zelditch, 1968) 
That is, the statistics reported are statements of the strength of 
relationship between particular variables rather than statements 
expressing the probability of that respondents reliably reflect the 
rest of persons In the area. (Blalock, 1960) The primarv measure of 
association utilized for this purpose is gamma (tf), an ordinal statistic 
which has the characteristic of permitting a proportional reduction of 
error Interpretation. (Costner, 1965) The higher the statistic, the 
stronger the association between the variables being analvzed. 

The Research Design for Analysis 

Probably the greatest concern of policv makers regarding the 
responses of residents in the Decker-Birney Area is how frequently a 
particular opinion is expressed. That is, the frequency of responses, 



- 53 - 



the average response among respondents and the percentage of respon- 
dents in each response category provide policy makers with the valuable 
information of how respondents generally feel about each question. 
Such summaries also provide rough profiles of the characteristics of 
respondents since their responses also indicate socio-demographic 
characteristics as well as expressed attitudes. 

Important as descriptive information is, it cannot properly 
be used to infer relationships between the characteristics of 
respondents and the nature of responses. One method of permit is, 
this important form of analysis involves cross tabulating two or more 
variables with each other. The creation of a table like the following 
one is superior to purely descriptive statistics for two malor reasons. 
First, such a table displays the actual number of cases which share 
common cells created by the cross tabulation of the variables. Second, 
such cross tabulation permits the computation of statistics which 
establish the strength of association between the two variables. 

Of themselves, however, statistics describing two variables tell 
relatively little concerning the over all relationships between all 
variables in the research. In order to provide a more comprehensive 
categorization of all variables more general relationships, reflected 
bv the particular cross tabular analysis, should be established. 
These more general relationships are the malor characteristic of the 
research design implemented through the research. 

Perhaps the fundamental concern to sociology is the form of social 
organization extant in a social system. Corollary to this is the matter 



- 54 



I 
I 



of the variety of social control operating within the social organization. 
(Cummings, 1968) This paper will be concerned with the perceptions of 
persons regarding social controls as they relate to attitudes concerning 
land use planning and toward development and appropriate representatives 
in the social decision making process. In conjunction with these 
attitudes, basic values mediating will be presented as intermediate 
variables effecting perceptions related to development and representation. 

The general theoretical perspective presented in this report is 
based upon the assumption that persons express beliefs as a consequence 
of the social positions which they occupy. More directly, this 
perspective maintains that controls, many which are not obvious to 
respondents or observors, in large part determine how people obtain 
values or beliefs. (Sites, 1975) Such controls restrict the opportuni- 
ties and the information often is wildly controversial to both respondents 
and to outsiders. Moreover, the author would be less than candid if he 
did not admit to sympathies to many positions held by most Decker-Rirney 
residents. However, he insists that no information has been deliberately 
selected or analyzed in a biased manner. The report attempts to 
honestly and accurately perform the descriptive and analytic goal 
described above. The text should not be read, therefore, as supporting 
one position over another with regard to the development of coal lands 
in the Decker-Birney Area or the maintenance of a style of life. If 
the text appears to take a side on any issue, it was not written with 
that intent. The reader is encouraged to reread such sections to make 
certain that the rather homogeneous responses of the residents on certain 



- 55 - 



issues do not make the description appear biased when in fact, the 
data are carrying the weight of the information. The reader is 
encouraged to constantly reconsider what has been described here. 
Although narrative and theoretical interpretations have been allotted 
a minimum amount of space, the reader is encouraged to challenge these 
and to provide substitutions. At the same time the reader is asked 
to acknowledge any preconceptions and biases associated with critical 
issues described in this report. In so doing the reader may ultimately 
better understand personal feelings as well as the feelings of residents 

in this unique area. 

No research procedure will answer our relevant questions on a 
topic so diverse as the one pursued throughout this report. The data 
in this report rely heavily upon the categorization of respondents and 
upon the treatment of categories through statistical methods. Little 
attention has been given to more intensive subjective interpretations 
of respondents feelings about their lives and the area in which they 
live. This deletion occurs because of the author's knowledge of 
intensive complementary work of this variety being performed by 
Dr. Ray Gold and his associates at The University of Montana. Further- 
more, the author maintains that the fundamental issue for our purposes 
argued by Lynd (19 39) and Lundberg (1961) may well have been a 
hollow one, however inevitable and important it may have been at the 
time. The fundamental issue was not soft versus had data, or subjective 
versus objective data. Although these are essential and, quite 



- 56 - 



probably unresolveable , they are less Important than the Issue related 
to how a researcher relates to the data generated. 

Summary 

The Decker-Birney Study Area encompasses 900,000 acres and has 
an estimated population of one thousand people. A total of 29R 
family units or potential interviews were identified bv the research 
in the study area by integrating a number of lists. F.ighty-seven 
percent of the study population was interviewed. Descriptive 
statistics were generated by using two subprograms, CODFBOOK and 
FASTABS , from the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. 



S7 



I 
I 

I 
I 
I 
I 
: 
i 



Chapter 4 
SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC COMPOSITION 

The compositional socio-demographic variables discussed in this 
chapter are age, sex, marital status and number of offspring, Race, an 
important variable in most analyses, is not discussed here because the 
number of members of racial minorities residing in the Decker-Birney 
Area was so small that comparative statistical analyses would be 
unreliable and invalid. The absence of racial minorities bears mention- 
ing because of the close proximity of the study area to both the Crow 
and the Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservations. Their absence in the 
study area undoubtedly reflects historical and contemporary prejudices 
against racial minorities in the area. 

Although the effects of placement in a particular age, sex or 
marital category may have profound effects upon the beliefs and activi- 
ties of persons, predicting how persons may feel about land use planning 
and development as a consequence of ascribed characteristics is difficult. 
Prediction is especially difficult unless the way the social system 
differentially socializes and provides opportunities to persona in 
different categories is understood. We hypothesize that within any 
category, persons who see themselves as vulnerable to negative effects 
from change will most likely oppose change and, consequently, advocate 
planning. By vulnerable we mean that persons who stand to lose economic 
standing, social prestige, valued life style - a wide variety of valued 
statuses or roles will perceive themselves to be vulnerable. We further 



- 58 - 



hypothesize that persons who maintain control of their resources, however 
vulnerable they may be, will be less likely to oppose change than are 
those without control over resources. Control, refers to how a person 
determines the use of attributes whereas vulnerability refers to the 
effects incurred by potential changes in the resource use. 

In an area undergoing rapid and profound change it is questionable 
whether anyone is completely invulnerable. Nearly anyone who is 
attached to a way of life i9 vulnerable to some loss. The elderly, 
though they may have relatively little to lose, may suffer greatly from 



Weak 
Vulnerable 



Control 


No Control 


Oppose 


Favor 
Planning 


Oppose 
Planning 


Strongly 

Oppose 

Planning 



Strong 
Invulnerable 



single losses. For example, pensioners may be unable to compete for 
housing which was available at low cost prior to development while 
suffering only slightly from changes which might disturb other indigents. 
The younger single person who may appear invulnerable while feeling very 
effected by potential changes is vulnerable from this perspective. 
However, the person who genuinely does not expect a loss from any 
forseeable change is invulnerable. A married person with many children 
who cares little about the intrinsic local qualities of life while 
caring much about rewards in some other style, may truly be invulnerable 
Age of Respondent 

During modern times, age, probably more than any other variable 



- 59 - 



indicates exposure and experience to social change. Age not only 
determines at which ages particular varieties of behavior are appropri- 
ate but also parallels social changes occurring during life. Undoubt- 
edly, exposure to social change qualitatively differs between the 
Decker-Birney Area and metropolitan areas. Still, the older the 
respondents, other variables held constant, the greater the exposure 
and experience within the area. 

As described in previous discussion of years spent in the 9tudy 
area, long term residents are by definition relatively old. (See Table 
4A What Age X Years Area) However, as was also pointed out, recent 
arrivals are generally drawn from the youngest category of age. 
Consequently, the relationships between age and responses to questions 
generally are quite similar. 

These similarities reflect the same persons being classified in a 
different manner. The social controls operating continue to be the same. 

The older persons are, the more likely they are to be men. Sixty- 
nine percent of respondents under 25 are women compared to forty percent 
above 60 years of age. A majority of each age category grew up in 
Montana and nearly three-quarters of each age category were raised in 
Montana or another Western state. Perhaps because of relatively fewer 
urban communities several decades ago, over twice as many (73.3%) in the 
oldest category grew up on farms than did those under 25 (35.3%). The 
youngest category is evenly distributed across farms, towns (under 10,000), 
and cities (over 10,000) whereas all other categories fall heavily into 
the farm category, although roughly four-fifths of each category lived 



- 60 - 



TABLE 
4 A 



THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN AGE OF 256 RESPONDENTS IN 
THE DECKER-BIRNEY AREA AND THE NUMBER OF YEARS THFY 
HAVE LIVED IN THE AREA 



NUMBER OF YEARS IN AREA 



COUNT 




















ROW PCT 


1 


Co 


5 


6 


to 49 


50 


to 


7° 


ROW 


COL PCT 


















TOTAL 


TOT PCT 






1 




2 






3 




AGE 1 






30 




21 









51 


OF 




58 


.8 




41.2 






.0 


19.9 


RESPONDENTS 




54 
11 


.5 
.7 




13.7 
8.2 






.0 
.0 





15 


67 


18.3 


81.7 


27.3 


43.8 


5.9 


26.2 










82 
32.0 



If" .778 



9 


39 


15 


63 


14.3 


61.9 


23. « 


24.6 


16.4 


25.5 


31.3 




3.5 


15.2 


5.9 





1 


26 


33 


60 


1.7 


43.3 


55.0 


2 3.4 


1.8 


17.0 


60.8 




.4 


10.2 


12.0 





COLUMN 


55 


153 


48 


256 


TOTAL 


21.5 


59.8 


18.8 


100.0 



- 61 - 



I 



in Montana or another western state before residing in the Decker- 
Birney Area and nearly everyone regards themselves as Montanans. Oldest 
respondents (1.7%) are unlikely whereas youngest respondents (17.67) 
are more likely to plan to move from the area. The older persons are 
more likely to head households (^f °.46) and to be widowed. The middle 
age categories have been the most prolific . Roughly one-third of the 
middle categories have had four or more children. In all age categories 
their children are most likely to continue to live in Montana, but a 
majority of children living elsewhere like where they live. Nearly 
one-half (46.8%) of respondents whose children reside outside Montana 
feel their children might return if a better job was available in 
Montana. For reasons discussed earlier, the older the respondent, the 
less the likelihood of high school graduation. Persons over 60 are most 
likely to fall in the lowest income group whereas persons between 30 
and 60 have highest incomes. Oldest persons are almost entirely 
agricultural (71.7%) or private sector (23.3%) in contrast to the 
youngest category which has a modal 33.3% in agriculture but a majority 
66.6% spread throughout other occupations. 

Satisfaction 

Responses concerning satisfaction of respondents with the Decker- 
Birney Area generally are similar for age of respondent and years spent 
in the area. Older persons increasingly report thev find the study 
area the most desirable place they have lived ( 0" - .2O). They more 
frequently agree that area shopping facilities are adequate (fl --.28) 



- 62 - 



and that road construction and maintenance are of high quality (0--.45). 
They more frequently report that the area ia a safe place to live 
(^""•26), and that it has excellent medical facilities Qj — .21). 

Older persons also are more likely to oppose indoor recreational 
facilities (~ff-.30), sex education in schools (q -.31), adult 
education (Q -.27), a better health program ("jj -.22), counselling 
services (7f-.26), public housing (fl -.32) and even facilities for 
senior citizens (J"-. 30). Older persons feel the church is more 
responsive to new comers than do young persons (jj -.23). 

Older persons also are more likely to feel traffic in the area 
is a problem (JJ--.26), although over two-thirds of them do not see a 
problem, though, paradoxically, they less often see a population 
problem in the area (0 --.29) and more often feel changes have improved 
the area ($~-.26). (See Tab i e 4 B ) 

Planning 

Older respondents, like persons who have lived in the area for 
lengthy periods, also are more likely to express a desire for local 
control (Q-.27). They oppose the local use of federal (((-.35) or 
state planners (Q".35) in the area. In spite of their belief in 
local control, most feel little can be done to stop inflation (^ =-.2R). 
And, a smaller majority express a right to interfere with the nation's 
need for coal ( Q — .27). All age categories, but especially the older 
categories, feel area people need a stronger voice in planning (^-.33). 

Still, they generally do not express as strong opposition to 



- 63 



TABLE - MEASURES OF SATISFACTION AND GENERAL NON-COAL 
4 B PLANNING MEASURES ASSOCIATED WITH AGE FOR 250 

DECKER-BIRNEY RESIDENTS, SUMMER 1974 



Area and Personal Satisfaction 
Measures 



General Non-Coal Area Planning 
Measures 



AREHAP 


.OR 


AREPOP 


.02 


AREDESIR 


.21 


USPOP 


.14 


ARETAX 


.07 


FAVRDPAV 


-.14 


ARESCHL 


.15 


FAVWILD 


.16 


ARESHOP 


.28 


FAVCONDV 


-.12 


ARECONST 


.45 


FAVPUBAC 


-.16 


ARE SAFE 


.26 


FAVCLOSE 


.01 


ARETRAF 


.26 


AGSTPLAN 


.35 


AREPOL 


.11 


AGFDPLAN 


.35 


ARERECO 


-.07 


AGINDCOM 


.27 


ARERECI 


-.30 


PROFSELF 


-.21 


AREMED 


.21 


PROFFRND 


-.12 


ARESXED 


.31 


PROFPWR 


.18 


AREADED 


.27 


PRO FARE A 


-.14 


AREHELTH 


-.22 


FAVPLAN 


.07 


AREJOBOP 


.06 


OPPLAN 


.08 


ARECOUNS 


-.26 


SCIOPP 


-.09 


ARESENR 


.30 


SCIVOTE 


-.07 


ARECHILD 


.18 


WHOPLAN 


-.08 


AREMINLV 


-.07 


OGHTPLAN 


.16 


AREHOUSP 


.32 


PLANHARM 


-.12 


AREHLP 


.18 


STRPRCLM 


.18 


ARECROWD 


.01 


AREAPLN 


-.24 


ARESCNDS 


-.17 


PLNFIND 1 


-.10 


AREINDPW 


-.22 


PLNFIND 2 


-.47 


AREHWYCN 


.14 


PLNEARLY 


-.17 


AREPOPGW 


.29 


PLNRESLT 


-.07 


ARELVCON 


.04 


AGINDSUP 


-.04 


AGHELP 


.12 


AGSCI 


-.02 


AGS ATI S 


.18 


AGINFL 


.28 


SEEBTR 


.26 


AGPEACE 


.07 


SEECHG 


.17 


AGPOWR 


.11 


PWRMINE 


-.04 


AGINFAV 


-.13 


SHFTRANC 


-.14 


ENGYCRIS 


-.09 






NOSTOP 


.15 






DEMVOTE 


-.12 






LOCALGOV 


-.16 






OLDTMRS 


-.13 






EMPLOYSGO 


.27 






BADEMPLY 


.15 






LVNGCNDT 


.26 






CHILDITR 


-.02 






CHILDLDR 


-.07 






EPLTRES 


.05 






FEELPART 


-.01 



- 64 - 



TABLE 

4C 



MEASURES (GAMMA) OF COAL AND ENERGY DEVELOPMENT 
PLANNING SENTIMENTS AND PERSONAL SOCIAL AND 
ENVIRONMENTAL SENTIMENTS ASSOCIATED WITH AGE 
FOR 259 DECKER-BIRNEY RESIDENTS, SUMMER 1974 



Coal and Energy Development and 
Planning Sentiment Measure s 



AGCOAL 


.13 


AGSACR 


.25 


AGNATNED 


.27 


AGOWNED 


.17 


COALECON 


.39 


COMPCMP 


.20 


NATNEED 


-.13 


ENOUGHMN 


-.10 


OWEELECT 


.06 


DVLPINDS 


.14 


INDPLAN 


-.25 


INDSTGTS 


.08 


AGFOOD 


-.05 


PRVMINE 


-.02 


RIVDAM 


.05 


MINGCOMP 


.13 


LANDCOND 


.00 


WTRCROPS 


-.05 


SACRCOAL 


-.03 


DRYUP 


.02 


MPCRECLM 


-.03 


EMINTDMN 


.11 


MPCNOAFF 


-.41 


STRPTEXPN 


-.01 


PREFRSTP 


-.17 


MO RLE AS E 


-.12 


MORPOWR 


-.14 


MORSTRIP 


-.16 


MORRAILR 


-.12 


MINGCOMP 


-.13 


RECIVPAY 


-.07 


AGPTENTL 


-.02 


SULFUR 


.05 


7MINES 


.06 


POORTMBR 


.10 



Personal, Social Environment 
and Coal Sentiment Measures 



AGEMPLOY 


.14 


GUILTY RS 


-.02 


ISSUEDIS 


.19 


INTIMRES 


.03 


BESTMINE 


.03 


MINRSRES 


.04 


SCLCOSTS 


-.03 


PORLYINF 


.03 


TEACHTMP 


-.06 


NEWCHRCH 


.23 


DESRCONS 


-.11 


OBJMOVE 


.10 


POPTIES 


.02 


EVALPLNS 


-.07 


COALTAX 


.18 


CO CON CRN 


.05 


BNFTRESD 


.04 


BNFTCITY 


-.00 


COALEFCT 


-.03 


AGPOLIND 


-.11 


DEEPMINF 


.00 


BEACHDS 


.11 


MINESBTR 


.05 


MNTANLAW 


.12 


ME COAL 


.18 


MERATE 


.10 



- 65 - 



development or to industry as younger persons express. The two youngest 
categories more strongly agree industrial interests in the area are too 
powerful (if--. 22). A larger majority of the young agree clean air can 
not be sacrificed for development (0--.25) and that coal decisions 
should be based on more information than economics (!=»-. 39). Still 
more newcomers feel the companies operate from compassion for people 
rather than because of the law (0 =.20). All age groups and especially 
the voungest strongly agree that companies should reveal their develop- 
ment plans ( 0--.25). The same relationship holds regarding where units 
should be built. That is, a larger majority of voung persons favor 
building plants in the area in which people will use them (Q =-.22). 
Older persons, like long term residents, also are less familiar 
with area planning ("(£"--.24), less likely to have obtained information 
through personal contact ("C — .47) and more likely to oppose professional 
planners in the area (q -.21). (See Table 4C) 

Ownership 

Ownership responses indicate that older respondents are similar 
to but not synonomous with long-term residents. The older a respondent, 
the less likely is motorcycle ownership although the 30 to 45 age group 
the most cvcles (15.9%) (& -.27). Young persons more frequently 
touring skis (Q--.49), skis ("ft --.46) and water skis (Q -.38). 
Youth is also associated with ownership of fishing rods (q --.21) and 
bows (Q--.51). 



owns 



own 



- 66 - 



The reasons for remaining in the Decker-Birnev Area again 
differentiate young persons from old persons in a similar manner to 
newcomers from old timers. Older persons more frequently report 
reasons of health (Q-.26), business (Q-.25) and deep social 
roots (5 -.31) while young persons mention access to recreation 
more frequently ("Q - .24). 

Older persons also report knowing persons in a wider variety of 
occupations than young persons report. Older persons more frequently 
know a grocer (Q-.40), an electrician ((p -.20), and a motel operator 
( Q - .25). Once again, however, a strong malority of each age category 
reports knowing persons in each occupation. The importance of social 
control, again, seems to be indicated for all age groups but 
especially for older persons. (See Table AD) 



- 67 - 



TABLE - PERSONAL ACQUAINTANCE OWNERSHIP AND AREA 
4n ATTRACTION MEASURES ASSOCIATED WITH AGE 

FOR 259 DECKER-BIRNEY RESIDENT, SUMMER 19 74 



Personal Acqi 


jaintance 


Ownership 


Measures 


Area Attractl 


on 


Measures 









Measures 




KNOCOP 


-.04 


OWN4WHL 


.08 


DECBEAUT 


-.07 


KNOTCHR 


-.06 


OWNCYCL 


-,27 


DECCONV 


-.12 


KNOGROC 


.40 


OWNSNMB 


.01 


DECHLTH 


.26 


KNOELECT 


.20 


OWNPWRBT 


-.14 


DECCRIM 


.08 


KNOPHYS 


.08 


OWNCMPR 


.18 


DECPOLL 


.01 


KNOCAFE 


.12 


OWNTENT 


-.13 


DECFAM 


.09 


KNOMINST 


.14 


OWNCCSKI 


-.49 


DECCOST 


-.14 


KNOHRDWR 


.06 


OWNSKI 


-.47 


DECINHRT 


.17 


KNOSPRT 


.13 


OWNWSKI 


-.38 


DECFRND 


:i6 


KNOFIRE 


.01 


OWNFISH 


-.21 


DECREC 


-.24 


KNOAUTO 


.10 


OWNBOW 


-.51 


DECCLIM 


.16 


KNOSERV 


.12 


OWNPSTL 


-.17 


DECBUSNS 


.24 


KNOPLUMB 


.05 


OWNGUN 


-.03 


DECROOTS 


.'31 


KNONRS 


-.03 


OWNMOVIE 


-.05 


DECLIFE 


.14 


KNOMOTEL 


-.25 


OWNCAM 


-.08 






KNOBNKR 


.02 


OWNHORS 


.17 







68 - 



Marital Status 

Marriage constitutes one of the most important social institutions 
throughout societies. (Lundberg, Schrag, Larsen, Catton, 1963) 
Through marriage persons acquire new roles universally identifying 
persons as having different rights and obligations than those allotted 
to the unmarried. Marriage in large part represents one's mature 
position in the life cycle. With adulthood comes the opportunity 
for marriage, an opportunity seized by nearly everyone in the United 
States. Marriage denotes an ability to exercise sufficient ludgment, 
to become independent from parents and to enter into parenthood. 
This ability implies relative financial stability as well as enduring 
interpersonal responsibilities to spouse, offspring and the community. 
Together, these characteristics differentiating married from unmarried 
persons can be expected similarly to differentiate between their 
responses on social issues. Such differentiation especially can be 
expected in communities which clearly acknowledge and reward marital 
status and which deny the opportunity to persons according to their 
position in the community. (Lundberg, Schrag, Larsen, Catton, 1963) 
In the Decker-Birney Area nearly everyone weds. Most persons anticipate 
marriage before marriage. The characteristics differentiating single 
persons from married persons, other than age, then, are largely non- 
existent. Nevertheless, married persons are subject to more informal 
and formal social controls than counterparts who are single. (Clayton, 197S) 
The commitment of marriage intensifies choices of life style, occupation 
and living area. Marriage also usually implies a stake for posterity, 



- 69 - 



perhaps a structural conservatism, perhaps less likely found among the 
unmarried. These differences, however slight, may be expected to show 
their effects on responses. 

Profile of Marital Status 

That marriage is the norm in the Decker-Birney Area is obvious 
with a quick perusal of the statistics. Only 33 (12.8%) of respondents 
have never married. The remainder 198 (76. 7%) are currently married 
while 10 (3.9%) and 17 (6.6%) respectively are divorced or separated 
and widowed. It should be anticipated that many single persons 
eventually will marry although most probably will not because of age. 
Fourteen of the 33 Single respondents are over 65, but 15 (2%) are not 
the heads of their households. As is the norm for rural areas in the 
United States, most (72. 7%) single persons are males with geographic 
origins similar to the place where they currently reside. Widowed and 
divorced persons, on the other hand are more frequentlv females (88.2% 
and 80.0%, respectively) who came from similar geographic areas. 
Throughout all marital categories a majority of respondents came from 
Montana and, excepting divorced persons, were raised on farms. The 
mode for years lived in the area for each marital category is between 
6 and 49 years. Most persons in each category further expect to 
remain in the Decker-Birney Area and nearly evervone considers 
themselves to be Montanans. Single and divorced or separated persons 
show the greatest variation in this respect. Twenty percent of divorced or 
separated, 12.1% of single 7.6% of married and no widowed persons plan 



- 70 - 



to move. All of the widowed respondents are the heads of their 

households, followed by divorced or separated persons (90%), single 

persons (84.8%) and married persons (54.3%). 

Parenthood is important to Decker-Birney residents, as exhibited 

by respondents who have had married. Ninety percent of married and 

divorced persons have children as have seventy percent of widowed 

persons. 

Widowed persons are more likely to have four or more children 
(41.2%) than are married persons (24.2%) or divorced or separated 

persons (20.0%). Widows also are most likely to have adult children 
(100%) than are separated or divorced persons (66.7%) and married 

persons (42.6%). Most of the adult children of respondents continue 
to live in Montana. All of the widowed persons have adult children 
living in Montana compared to 83.3% among married couples and 57.1% 
among divorced or separated persons. In composite then, widowed 
persons appear to be the most attached marital status to the area 
and to Montana followed by married persons, divorced or separated 
persons and single persons. This ordering of marital status comprises 
the basis upon which measures of association were computed. 

The restraints, i.e. social controls operating upon persons, are 
in large part due to affiliations, the most important for most persons 
being the family. (Hobbs - Blank, 1975) Single persons and 
divorced and separated persons have relatively fewer restraints than 
persons who are married. Widowed persons may constitute an exceptional 
category in that they have completed a marriage cycle. As such they 



- 71 - 



may resemble other unmarried persons in some manners while resembling 

married persons in others. (Nye, 1973) They will retain interaction 

established through marriage more frequently than divorced persons. 

Moreover, largely because of advancing age, widowed persons may 

be even more controlled in their social context than are persons in 

either marital status categories. For example, they may have lost 

the ability to change residential locations or the incentives to oppose 

change. 

The relative absence of restraint is hypothesized to make single, 
divorced and separated persons generally more satisfied with the area, 
hence more antagonistic to changes, than are married and widowed persons. 
This hypothesis is partially born out by the satisfaction measures. 
(See Table) Single and divorced and separated persons are more likely 
to prefer the Decker-Birney Area with high taxes than someplace else 
with lower taxes ((T-.20). Still, perhaps because of their own 
vulnerability they feel the area needs more job opportunities for 
young persons (^=».21). They feel that the scenic resources are being 
destroyed (q -. 22) . 

Satisfaction 

Married and widowed persons are more likely to be more satisfied 
with some measures of the area than are single, divorced and widowed 
persons. As might be expected because of their parental status, they 
are more likely to feel the area is a good place to rear children (0-.22) 
Perhaps because of their interaction with others and the legitimation 
which accompanies marriage (and which negatively sanctions divorce) 



- 72 - 



married persons feel local persons are more helpful than persons 
elsewhere ( ^" - . 33) . They do not seem to object to the quality of roads 
in the area as much as other do ({'. 29), although marital status does 
not appear to be associated with a desire for road construction. They 
also appear a little more fatalistic than single, divorced or widowed 
persons. For example, married and widowed persons feel less able to 
control inflation (V-.22) and have less expectations that a world peace 
can be achieved ("£-.25) although the model categories among all sets of 
respondents are similar. Still, nearly 907. of these respondents report 
they are satisfied with life, even more frequently than single, divorced 
and separated persons (if-. 21) See Table 4E) 

Planning 

The perception of disruptive change also is more likely among 
single, divorced and separated persons. They feel that population 
increase will have negative effects on the area even if planning 
occurs (^-.21). In fact they already are more likely to report 
feeling population problems in the area Cd-.21). It should be 
pointed out that single, divorced and separated persons do not oppose 
change, per se. In fact they seem to favor some changes so long as 
reasonable care is exercised. For example, they more frequently 
support the use of scientific knowledge in dealing with problems Co -.46) 
They feel that federal planners should be involved in planning 
development in Montana, if development occurs (^-.38). 



- 73 - 



TABLE - MEASURES OF SATISFACTION AND GENERAL NON-COAL 
4E PLANNING MEASURES ASSOCIATED WITH MARITAL STATUS 

FOR 259 DECKER-BIRNEY RESIDENTS, SUMMER 1974 



Area and Personal Satisfaction 
Measures 



General Non-Coal Area Planning 
Measures 



AREHAP 


-.04 


AREPOP 


.21 


AREDESIR 


-.05 


USPOP 


.OR 


ARETAX 


-.20 


FAVRDPAV 


-.01 


ARESCHL 


.00 


FAVWILD 


.21 


ARESHOP 


.03 


FAVCONDV 


.07 


ARECONST 


-.02 


FAVPUBAC 


-.23 


ARESAFE 


.04 


FAVCLOSE 


-.14 


ARETRAF 


-.10 


AGSTPLAN 


.09 


AREPOL 


-.05 


AGFDPLAN 


.38 


ARE RE CO 


-.05 


AGINDCOM 


.14 


ARERECI 


-.05 


PROFS ELF 


-.04 


AREMED 


-.18 


PROFFRND 


-.07 


ARESXED 


.12 


PROFPWR 


.11 


AREADED 


.16 


PROFAREA 


-.02 


AREHELTH 


.03 


FAVPLAN 


-.02 


AREJOBOP 


.21 


OPPLAN 


.05 


ARECOUNS 


.03 


SCIOPP 


-.14 


ARESENR 


.09 


SCIVOTE 


-.09 


ARE CHILD 


.22 


WHOPLAN 


-.03 


AREMINLV 


-.04 


OGHTPLAN 


.10 


AREHOUSP 


.04 


PLANHARM 


.15 


AREHLP 


.33 


STRPRCLM 


.15 


ARECROWD 


-.12 


AREAPLN 


-.12 


ARESCNDS 


-.22 


PLNFIND 1 


-.32 


AREINDPW 


-.22 


PLNFIND 2 


-.04 


AREHWYCN 


.24 


PLNEARLY 


-.10 


AREPOPGW 


.21 


PLNRESLT 


-.45 


ARELVCON 


.11 


AGINDSUP 


-.07 


AGHELP 


.08 


AGS CI 


-.46 


AGS AT IS 


.21 


AGINFL 


.22 


SEEBTR 


.04 


AGPEACE 


-.25 


SEECHG 


-.10 


AGPOWR 


.08 


PWRMINE 


-.02 


AGINFAV 


-.06 


SHFTRANC 


-.25 


ENGYCRIS 


.06 






NOSTOP 


.16 






DEMVOTE 


-.41 






LOCALGOV 


-.11 






OLDTMRS 


.17 






EMPLYSGO 


.00 






BADEMPLY 


.08 






LVNGCNDT 


.19 






CHILDITR 


.06 






CHILDLDR 


.04 






EPLTRES 


-.24 






FEELPART 


-.00 



- 74 - 



Single, divorced and married persona, perhaps because of fewer 
family demands, are considerably more likely to have participated in 
planning. In fact, personal participation is the primary manner in 
which they have learned of planning efforts in contrast to married and 
widowed persons, who more frequently were exposed through friends or 
mass media (}f*-.32). Consequently, single, divorced and separated 
persons more frequently know of results from planning efforts (}f-.45). 

Development 

As should be expected, single, divorced and separated persons 
also are more likely to favor planning which would preserve rather 
than develop the area. They favor the creation of additional wilder- 
ness areas (X~-.21). They would like to require developers to donate 
acreage for public use, if development were to occur Q(~-.23). Their 
opposition to development is demonstrated by even stronger opposition of 
married and widowed persons (q -.29). (See Table Marital Status X 4f 
Mor Power). Once established, power plants would have to meet pollution 
standards or be shut down, according to 90.3% of all respondents, 
including 100Z of widowed persons (Q--.23). They favor deep mines to 
strip mining more than married or widowed persons (Q -.29). And, they 
strongly reject the sacrifice of recreational land for coal development 
(J-.30). They also oppose coal development on timber lands, as a poor 
U9e of resources (0-.22) though they are less likely to feel the 
National Forest is well managed (0 --.23). 



- 75 - 



TABLE - THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MARITAL STATUS (MARSTAT) 

4F AND RESPONSES OF 258 DECKER-BIRNEY RESIDENTS REGARDING 

THE CONSTRUCTION OF ELECTRICAL GENERATION UNITS IN THE 

DECKER-BIRNEY AREA (MORPOWR) 



CONSTRUCTION OF MORE UNITS 



COUNT 










ROW PCT 


FAVOR 


NEUTRAL 


OPPOSE 


ROW 


COL PCT 








TOTAL 


TOT PCT 


1 


2 


3 




MARITAL STATUS 










1 


27 


3 


3 


33 


SINGLE 


81.8 


9.1 


9.1 


12.8 




15.6 


9.7 


5.6 






10.5 


1.2 


1.2 





DIVORCED 

OR 
SEPARATED 



8 


2 





10 


80.0 


20.0 


.0 


3.9 


A. 6 


6.5 


.0 




3.1 


.8 


.0 





MARRIED 



126 


23 


49 


198 


63.6 


11.6 


24.7 


76.7 


72.8 


74.2 


90.7 




48.8 


8.9 


19.0 





SEPARATED 



12 


3 


2 


17 


70.6 


17.6 


11.8 


6.6 


6.9 


9.7 


3.7 




4.7 


1.2 


.8 





COLUMN 


173 


31 


54 


258 


TOTAL 


67.1 


12.0 


20.9 


100.0 



If' --24 



- 76 - 



TABLE 
4G 



MEASURES (GAMMA) OF COAL AND ENERGY DEVELOPMENT 
PLANNING SENTIMENTS AND PERSONAL SOCIAL AND 
ENVIRONMENTAL SENTIMENTS ASSOCIATED WITH MARITAL 
STATUS FOR 259 DECKER-BIRNEY RESIDENTS, SUMMER 1974 



Coal and Energy Development and 
Planning Sentiment Measures 



Personal, Social Environment 
and Coal Sentiment Measures 



AOCOAL 


.24 


AGEMPLOY 


.01 


AGSACR 


.02 


GUILTYRS 


-.12 


AONATNED 


.09 


ISSUEDIS 


.15 


AGOWNED 


.18 


INTIMRES 


-.00 


COALECON 


.34 


BESTMINE 


.35 


COMPCMP 


.11 


MINRSRES 


-.09 


NATNEED 


.16 


SCLCOSTS 


-.11 


ENOUGHMN 


-.08 


PORLYINF 


-.01 


OWEELECT 


.15 


TEACHTMP 


-.27 


DVLPINDS 


.10 


NEWCHRCH 


.20 


INDPLAN 


.26 


DESRCONS 


-.04 


INDSTGTS 


.19 


OBJMOVE 


.25 


AGFOOD 


-.09 


POPTIES 


.05 


PRVMINE 


.05 


EVALPLNS 


-.05 


RIVDAM 


-.08 


COALTAX 


.20 


MINGCOMP 


.19 


COCONCRN 


-.02 


LANDCOND 


.04 


BNFTRESD 


-.06 


WTRCROPS 


-.03 


BNFTCITY 


.07 


SACRCOAL 


-.30 


COALEFCT 


.09 


DRYUP 


-.23 


AGPOLIND 


.24 


MPCRECLM 


;o8 


DEEPMINE 


.24 


EMINTDMN 


.19 


BEACHDS 


.07 


MPCNOAFF 


.18 


MINESBTR 


.16 


STRPTEXPN 


-.13 


MNTANLAW 


-.00 


PREFRSTP 


.29 


ME COAL 


.00 


MORLEASE 


-.17 


MERATE 


.17 


MORPOWR 


-.24 






MORSTRIP 


-.19 






MORRAILR 


-.19 






MINGCOMP 


-.17 






RECIVPAY 


-.06 






AGPTENTL 


.15 






SULFUR 


-.04 






7MINES 


.02 






POORTMBR 


.22 







- 77 - 



Ownership Measures 

Ownership patterns vary slightly by marital status. Even these 
slight differences may reflect different age and sex characteristics 
associated with different marital status since age and sex character- 
istics compliment the relative presence of social control in married 
life. In any case single, divorced and separated persons are far less >> 
likely to own four-wheel-drive vehicles ( f= -.25), guns (f= -.26) 
and horses (0= .26). Vehicles and horses, especially may be oblects 
owned in con-junction with occupation rather than recreation. 

They are more likely to own touring skis ($ = .91), purely a 
recreational oblect in southeastern Montana. Ownership, then, shows 
only slight differences according to marital status. differences do 
not appear to warrant further comment regarding social control. 

Respite different perspectives on land use planning, environment 
and development evident across marital status lines, one fact remains 
incontrovertible: all respondents continue to reside in the Decker- 
Birney Area. Many of these persons remain in the area despite 
experiencing or anticipating discomforting changes. The motivations 
behind the choice to remain in the area differ considerablv according 
to the marital status of respondents. 

Among the most important factors leading a person to remain in the 
area is proximity of family. Sixty-nine and three tenths percent of all 
respondents report a nearby family to be verv imnortant or somewhat 
important to their decision to remain. This association indicates 
(See Table 411 MARSTAT X DEC FAMILY) 



78 - 



TABLE - THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MARITAL STATUS (MARSTAT) 
4H AND FINDING THE AREA DESIRABLE BECAUSE OF THE 

NEARBY PRESENCE OF RELATIVES (DEFAM) FOR 255 

DECKER-BIRNEY RESIDENTS 



THE IMPORTANCE OF HAVING THE FAMILY NEARBY 



MARITAL STATUS 



SINGLE 



COUNT 












ROW PCT 


VERY 


SOMEWHAT 


NOT 


VERY 


ROW 


COL PCT 


IMPORTANT 


IMPORTANT 


IMPORTANT 


TOTAL 


TOT PCT 












'T'C 


1 


2 




3 




Ub 

i 


7 


10 




15 


32 




21.9 


31.3 




46.9 


12.5 




6.5 


17.5 




16.5 






2.7 


3.9 




5.9 





DIVORCED 

OR 
SEPARATED 



2 


3 


5 


10 


20.0 


30.0 


50.0 


3.9 


1.9 


5.3 


5.5 




.8 


1.2 


2.0 





MARRIED 



86 


42 


68 


196 


43.9 


21.4 


34.7 


76.9 


80.4 


73.7 


74.7 




33.7 


16.5 


26.7 





SEPARATED 



12 


2 


1 


17 


70.6 


11.8 


17.6 


6.7 


11.2 


3.5 


3.3 




4.7 


.8 


1.2 





COLUMN 
TOTAL 



107 
42.0 



57 
22.4 



91 

35.7 



255 

100.0 



Y- .37 



- 79 - 



the family bonding is especially important for married and widowed 
persons, (if— .37) as anticipated in earlier discussion. In conlunction 
with family, inheritance is also an important motivation to remain for 
married and widowed persons (~Q=-.26). 

On the other hand, recreation appears to be a more important 
attraction for single, divorced or separated persons (^-.26). Social 
control factors associated with the family, then, appear to differenti- 
ate along marital status. 

The anticipation that married and widowed persons, as established 
community members, would be familar with persons in a varietv of 
occupations is only slightly born out. They are more likely to know a 
motel operator (f^ — .29) but are no more likely to know any other 
occupation than are single, divorced or separated persons. 

In conclusion, it appears that marital status supports a social 
control perspective. Married and widowed persons repeatedly show greater 
immersion and participation in the area than do single, divorced and 
separated respondents. Married and widowed persons seem to concern 
themselves more frequently with social interaction which transpires 
within the area rather than with non-environment interaction intrinsic 
to the characteristics of the area. This immersion may be responsible 
for generally greater insensitivity and acquiescence toward environ- 
mental change among married and widowed persons. Differences by 
marital status remain matters of degree rather than obsolete on nearly 
every question. That is, the majorities of each category generally 
feel the same way on each question. (See Tablp 41) 



- 80 - 



TABLE - PERSONAL ACQUAINTANCE OWNERSHIP AND AREA 
41 ATTRACTION MEASURES ASSOCIATED WITH MARITAL 

STATUS FOR 259 DECKER-BIRNEY RESIDENTS, SUMMER 1974 



Personal 


Acquaintance 


Ownership 


Measures 


Area Attra 


iction 


Measures 








Measures 




KNOCOP 


-.15 


OWN4WHL 


.25 


DECBEAUT 


.02 


KNOTCHR 


.13 


OWNCYCL 


-.13 


DECCONV 


.14 


KNOGROC 


.19 


OWNSNMB 


-.01 


DECHLTH 


.12 


KNO ELECT 


.00 


OWNPWRBT 


.01 


DECCRIM 


.15 


KNOPHYS 


.02 


OWNCMPR 


-.04 


DECPOLL 


.09 


KNO CAFE 


-.05 


OWNTENT 


.03 


DECFAM 


.37 


KNOMINST 


-.12 


OWNCCSKI 


-.43 


DECCOST 


-.04 


KNOHRDWR 


.08 


OWNSKI 


.02 


DECINHRT 


.26 


KNOSPRT 


-.10 


OWNWSKI 


-.09 


DECFRND 


-.05 


KNO FIRE 


-.08 


OWNFISH 


.05 


DECREC 


-.26 


KNOAUTO 


.19 


OWNBOW 


-.08 


DECCLIM 


-.06 


KNOSERV 


.04 


OWNPSTL 


-.03 


DECBUSNS 


-.15 


KNOPLUMB 


-.11 


OWNGUN 


-.26 


DECROOTS 


.09 


KNONRS 


-.15 


OWNMOVIE 


.02 


DECLIFE 


.03 


KNOMOTEL 


.29 


OWNCAM 


.06 






KNOBNKR 


-.08 


OWNHORS 


.27 







81 - 



Summary 

The relationships which exist between compositional characteristics 
and resident satisfaction, feelings toward development and feelings 
regarding planning are indeed complex. No dominant relationship, which 
would interlock the compositional characteristics to the dependent 
variables, is readily apparent. That is, no single affect of social 
control appears to exist across these measures. 

These measures show considerable variation in frequencv and 
strengths of associations with the dependent variables. Sex and age 
show relatively few and generally weak associations with the dependent 
variables, especially planning and development. Older nersons do report 
moderately greater satisfaction with the area than do younger persons. 
The number of children one has and one's marital status show moderate 
associations with the same variables. That is, married persons and 
persons with more children tend to be less satisfied with the facilities 
and services in the area, more in favor of development and more in favor 
of planning. 

The relationships reported in this chapter may support a social 
control perspective more than is immediately evident from the brief 
analysis provided. The failure for either sex or age, both ascribed 
compositional characteristics, to discriminate upon responses may occur 
because age and sex are not related to the reward structure. Being a 
woman of any particular age may not determine whether a respondent will 
succeed or fail, experience pleasure or discomfort, or anything else 



- 82 - 



for that matter, as a consequence of planning or development. 
Consequently, if no differences within the social control system exist, 
few differences in responses could be expected. The associations 
apparent when presence of children and marital status are considered 
demonstrate that greater differential social control is operating for 
these measures. The more conventional the status, i.e. married and 
with children, the more conventional the response. Another way of 
stating this relationship is that the more one has responded to social 
expectations through marrying and having children, the more likely one 
is to hold socially approved positions on development and planning. 
Exceptions to this statement, however, are plentiful throughout this 
chapter. While there is no way in which the affect of social control 
can be proven through data provided in this chapter, the relationship 
is one which deserves additional analysis. 



- 83 - 



Parenthood and The Number of Offspring 

The onset of parenthood constitutes one of the malor stages in 
the life cycle. (Blood, 1972) Following the relative freedom of being 
single and, later, being married without children, parenthood signifies 
attempted permanance in a marriage. Children often are not the result 
of rational decision making by the parents. (Blood, 1972) Even in 
marriages in which decision to have children follows a rational process, 
the real effects on the marriage are seldom anticipated by the parents. 
(Blood, 1972) However, children, whether born with or without deliberate 
and rational choice, place restraints upon parents which thev have not 
previously felt. (Nye, 1973) Perhaps more important, the birth of 
children usually is associated with effective socialization to conform 
to the social expectations surrounding marriage. (Clayton, 1975) 
Children, therefore, represent conformity to social controls operating 
upon the institution of marriage while at the same time creating 
additional controls upon the behavior and sentiments of parents. 

Considerable difficulty occurs when the relative importance of 
these varieties of social control on the behaviors and sentiments of 
respondents are considered. For the current chapter, the effects of 
these two forms of control will be considered to be complementary and 
will not be further differentiated. Suffice social control to be 
lointly considered as meeting the general social expectations 
surrounding parenthood as well as the structural constraints which 
follow from parenthood. Furthermore, the addition of each child 



- 84 - 



places greater restraints upon parents. Thus, the greater the number 
of children, the greater the social control is expected to he. 

The restraints accompanying oarenthood, however, are certainly 
balanced by the strength of the norm for rearing a family and by the 
rewards, both tangible and intangible, which are associated with con- 
forming to the expectations of parenthood. However, from a social 
control perspective, the constraints associated with children in a 
marriage may have rather profound influences in the -judgment and be- 
havior of parents. In fact, in the attempt to provide a desirable 
environment for their children, parents may activelv choose a parti- 
cular location and way of life. They may further attenmt to assure 
the location and way of life are maintained for themselves and for their 
offspring. Therefore, the relationship anticipated between children and 
responses is similar to the relationship for other measures of social 
control. That is, the presence of children and the number of children 
among respondents is ancticipated to be related to greater satisfaction 
with the area and greater resistance to change within the area, especially 
change through outside agents except when such changes appear to relate 
to the specific advantage of their children. 

Characteristics of Respondents by Number of Children 

Parenthood generally is a non-reversible process. Consequently, 
until completed family size is achieved, greater a se is correlated to 
increasing number of children. This relationship is partially inflated 
by gradual reduction in the average family size among successively 



- 85 



younger cohorts. (Eshleman, 1974) Even so, the relationship between 
age and number of children remains important. Oenerallv, age is 
positively associated with parenthood. However, persons in the oldest 
category, over 65, are more likely to have no children and less likely 
to have four or more children than are persons between thirty and sixty- 
five. The reason for this probably rests in the greater percentage of 
single men in the oldest category than occurs in the middle age categor- 
ies. 58.3% of respondents without children are males. A positive 
relationship does exist between number of children and the ages of 
children (J ■ .27). This indicates that younger respondents have not 
completed their families although their completed families mav fail to 
reach as high an average size as born to the older cohorts. 53.6% of 
children from families with four or more children are now adults whereas 
44.7% of children from families with one to three children now are adults. 
In spite of their greater likelihood to be adults, children from larger 
families are more likely to live in Montana, an indication that the 
earlier born children and families may have deeper attachments than would 
be found among smaller families ( (~ m .50) Still, where children live 
does not seem to be associated to their satisfaction when number of 
children in the family does not seem related to satisfaction in living 
outside Montana or to a propensity to return if opportunties made it 
possible (46.0%). Parents of all sized families feel their children 
would return if they could find iobs equal to those thev have elsewhere. 
The decision to have a particular number of children seems to be 



- 86 - 



only weakly associated with most social background characteristics 
of respondents. For example, the place of origin of respondents does 
not appear to be related to the number of children. The most common 
number of children for respondents i9 from one and three whether 
respondents are from east or we3t, country or city. Even the number 
of years lived in the study area shows a relatively weak relationship 
to number of children ($■ .17). Correspondingly, the intention of 
remaining in the study area does not seem related to having children. 
Most respondents regard themselves as Montanans and such self regard 
has no relationship to bearing children. 

As 9hould be expected, one variable, marriage, is strongly related 
to bearing children. No single persons report having children, whereas 
88. 4% of married, divorced, separated and widowed persons have had 
children. Given a few years many recently married persons undoubtedly 
would have children and raise the percentage. 

Relationships between socio-economic variables and family size 
appear to be weaker in the study area than are reported in many other 
studies. (Matras, 19 75) Educational achievement of respondents does 
not show 9trong association with family size. A majority of people 
in each educational category have from one and three children. The 
difference between the Decker-Birney Area and the national norm is 
further indicated by a relatively strong positive association between 
income and number of children ( /f" .31). The higher the family annual 
income, the greater the number of children. Traditionally, in rural 
areas children have been a sign of wealth because they contribute to 



- 87 - 



the agricultural operation. This condition may continue to exist in 
the Decker-Mrney Area although alternative explanations also are 
plausible. For example, the tendency toward having large families by 
rural persons with relatively high incomes may be due to residual norms 
regarding family size which have been slower to change than in other 
sectors of the society. Certainly, the personal infringements of 
children are less and personal satisfactions from children are greater 
in such a rural area than in most other places. Still, not all large 
families are found on the farm. Quite the contrary, persons in the 
private sector (25.0%) and construction (31.6%) are slightly more 
likely to have four or more children than are the people in other 
occupational categories. This is largely due to higher number of single 
persons engaged in agricultural and public sector occupations ( u ' a -.21). 
Thus, whether persons live in town9 or on farms has little effect on 
the number of children they have. 

The presence of children is a strong indicator of social restraint. 
Their nresencf, however, does not determine the part of such restraint 
will have on the evaluations parents may have for diverse sets of 
subjects. What is probably most important about the constraints 
associated with children is that the constraints accentuate the 
position and feelings of parents. That is, to the extent that children's 
presence complements the way of life of parents, parents respond to the 
constraint as a positive force. And, to the extent that children conflict 
with the aspirations, the constraints accentuate negative aspects of their 
social environment. 



- 88 - 



Throughout this research, the importance of marriage, family and 
children have been stressed. One might anticipate, therefore, that 
the presence of children would bear testimony for the desirability 
of the location in which they and their parents live. A counter 
argument is possible, though. It is plausible that the presence of 
children with its attendant costs and restrictions may lead persons 
with children more frequently to have negative evaluations of their 
lives and their environment. A complicating factor is that sentiments 
and activities expressed by respondents with differing numbers of 
children may be reflections of attenuating factors such as age diff- 
erences, differences in marital status and occupational differences. 
These competing explanations might be kept in mind throughout the 
following analyses. 

Satisfaction Measures 

Although three quarters of the surveyed parents, with four or 
more children, feel the Decker-Birney Area has everything necessary for 
a happy life, they are less likely to express this belief than are 
persons without children (^~- .30). Though still a minority (28.3%) 
single persons more frequently feel the health and medical care 
available in the area are excellent (q - .21). Further more they often 
feel satisfied with the current availability of jobs ( if- .20) Together, 
these measures indicate only slight differences in satisfaction of 
residents with the study area when oresence of children i9 considered. 
The differences indicate slightly more satisfaction with the area by 
non-parents. (See Table 4J) 



- 89 - 



TABLE - MEASURES OF SATISFACTION AND GENERAL NON-COAL 
PLANNING MEASURES ASSOCIATED WITH NUMBER OF 
CHILDREN FOR 259 DECKER-BIRNEY RESIDENTS, SUMMER 19 74 



4 J 



Area and Personal Satisfaction 
Measures 



General Non-Coal Area Planning 
Measures 



A REMAP 


-.30 


AREPOP 


.07 


AREDESIR 


-.04 


USPOP 


.07 


ARETAX 


-.07 


FAVRDPAV 


.04 


ARESCHL 


.00 


FAVWILD 


.17 


ARESHOP 


-.16 


FAVCONDV 


.19 


ARECONST 


-.03 


FAVPUBAC 


-.03 


ARESAFE 


.03 


FAVCLOSE 


.05 


ARETRAF 


-.12 


AGSTPLAN 


.03 


AREPOL 


-.12 


AGFDPLAN 


.09 


ARERECO 


.12 


AGINDCOM 


.11 


ARERECI 


.11 


PROFSELF 


.00 


AREMED 


-.21 


PROFFRND 


.06 


ARESXED 


.08 


PROFPWR 


.03 


AREADED 


.00 


PROFAREA 


.04 


AREHELTH 


-.05 


FAVPLAN 


.29 


AREJOBOP 


.20 


OPPLAN 


-.23 


ARECOUNS 


.15 


SCIOPP 


.03 


ARESFNR 


-.14 


SCIVOTE 


.22 


ARECHILD 


.17 


WHOPLAN 


.08 


AREMINLV 


-.01 


OGHTPLAN 


.10 


AREHOUSP 


.06 


PLANHARM 


.13 


AREHLP 


.19 


STRPRCLM 


-.05 


ARECROWD 


-.04 


AREAPLN 


.24 


ARESCNDS 


-.19 


PLNFIND 1 


-.18 


AREINDPW 


.16 


PLNFIND 2 


-.17 


AREHVYCN 


.00 


PLNEARLY 


.21 


AREPOPGW 


.16 


PLNRESLT 


-.02 


ARELVCON 


.14 


AGINDSUP 


-.28 


AGHELP 


-.03 


AGS CI 


-.22 


AGS AT IS 


-.15 


AGINFL 


-.06 


SEEBTR 


.17 


AGPEACE 


.01 


SEECHG 


-.04 


AGPOWR 


.00 


PWRMINE 


-.02 


AGINFAV 


-.04 


SHFTRANC 


.01 


ENGYCRIS 


.09 






NOSTOP 


.03 






DEMVOTE 


.21 






LOCALGOV 


.22 






OLDTMRS 


.14 






EMPLYSGO 


.00 






BADEMPLY 


.05 






LVNGCNDT 


.16 






CHILDITR 


.03 






CHILDLDR 


.17 






EPLTRES 


.04 






FEELPART 


.10 



- 90 - 



Planning and Development Measures 

The satisfaction with the area expressed by non-parents seems 
to carry over into a slightly greater desire to see the area remain 
unchanged. Though a majority, (50.9%), fewer parents of four or more 
children favor a moratorium on coal leasing (Q - .27) or power lines 
(£ — .22). More, although a minority, feel clean air can be sacrificed 
for industrial jobs ((—.22) and that recreation land can be 
9carificed for coal development 05 —.27). 

In spite of their relatively weaker satisfaction with the area, 
persons with children appear to be slightly more aware of planning 
efforts (tf— .24), though they became aware of planning only during 
the past year ("£— .21). This knowledge might occur for several 
reasons from a social control perspective. Persons with more children 
are more likely to be integral participants of the community because 
of their family responsibilities. Further, they may have more to 
personally gain or lose from changes. Or, they observe planning as a 
consequence of their lower satisfaction with area. That is, they 
may feel that development occurring with minimal disturbance may lead 
to improvements in the area. Thus, they more frequently favor 
planning for the area (f —.29) and comprehensive planning ( - .24). 
They would be more likely to vote in favor of a plan (fl — .23) even 
though most are uncertain how they would vote. They are less likely 
to feel, however, that each persons' vote should count equally (fl - .22) 

The slightly greater favorability toward planning in the area 
expressed by respondents with children probably is due to fewer fears 



- 91 - 



of what change might bring to the area. They feel less strongly that 
industrialization will upset the community ( jf- .28). They also feel 
less strongly that strip mining will result in reduced food production 
( If" -21) or .springs drying up (f- .22). Few parents feel the study 
area has poor timber (f- .21), poor land and should be mined (f- .20). 
Those who do are more common than among respondents without children. 
They less frequently (59.6%) believe children of temporary residents 
will be treated differently from children of natives (f- .25). A few 
more parents (10.5%) feel people who do not like coal development can 
move away from the area ((f- .25). A paradox occurs in that, though 
they oppose planning more frequently, persons with no or fewer children 
also view the use of scientific knowledge in a more favorable Manner 
(}f- .22) and less often feel companies should be required to reveal 
development plans for local scrutiny (0 - -.20). 

The various reasons that persons with children, especially large 
numbers of children, may support planning may be further solidified bv 
the parents' weaker opposition to development and stronger support of 
reasons for development. For example, persons with children feel that 
Montana coal really is needed from the federal administration perspec- 
tive (f- .37) and in terms of nation's need ( - .33). They are 
less likely to feel Montana already has enough strip mines (0 - .24) 
and that strip mining is incompatible with good land use (Jf- . 38) . 
More persons, although a minority, with children feel area residents 
will be better off if strip mines are developed (0- .22), as will the 
state as a whole ( f- .28). In conl unction with this relative approval, 



92 - 



persons with four or more children (17. 57) more frequently feel a 
duty to generate electricity (0™ .20) and (36. 87) to develop 
Montana industry (\ - .27). (See Table 4K) 

Ownership 

Possessions seem to be no more associated with oarenthood than 
are measures of satisfaction and planning. Although a minority, (12.57), 
more persons with children than without own motorcycles (0 ■ .25) and 
snowmobiles ( « .21). They also are more likely to own fishing rods 
( Q = .22), guns CK " -47), movie cameras (Q" .26) and horses (o«" .21). 

On the other hand, persons without children are a little more 
likely to own cross country skis (q" -.30), water skis (7j - -.27). 
These differences, although not profound, are somewhat consistent with 
what might have been expected. The higher education of single, young 
persons has possibly put them into contact with skiing. The other 
differences are rather difficult to account for. Perhaps fishing, 
taking pictures, horseback riding and shooting are family activities. 
Perhaps the preference for skiing among non-parents is mutually 
exclusive with more mechanized recreational pursuits. Our data do 
not permit testing these tentative explanations. (See Table 4L) 

Personal Acquaintance Measures 

The increased potential for human contact which should be expected 
through a large family as well as the increased age accompanying 
parenthood should acquaint respondents who are parents with more and 



- 93 - 



TABLE - MEASURES (GAMMA) OF COAL AND ENERGY DEVELOPMENT 
4K PLANNING SENTIMENTS AND PERSONAL SOCIAL AND 

ENVIRONMENTAL SENTIMENTS ASSOCIATED WITH NUMBER 

OF CHILDREN FOR 259 DECKER-BIRNEY RESIDENTS, SUMMER 1974 



Coal and Energy Development and 
Planning Sentiment Measures 



Personal, Social Environment 
and Coal Sentiment Measures 



AGCOAL 


.38 


AGSACR 


-.22 


AGNATNED 


.17 


AGOWNED 


.12 


COALECON 


.01 


COMPCMP 


-.05 


NATNEED 


.33 


ENOUGHMN 


-.24 


OWEELECT 


.20 


DVLPINDS 


.27 


INDPLAN 


-.10 


INDSTGTS 


.03 


AGFOOD 


-.21 


PRVMINE 


-.02 


RIVDAM 


-.16 


MINGCOMP 


.38 


LANDCOND 


.05 


WTRCROPS 


.18 


SACRCOAL 


-.27 


DRY UP 


-.22 


MPCRECLM 


-.14 


EMINTDMN 


.01 


MPCNOAFF 


.33 


STRPTEXPN 


-.10 


PREFRSTP 


.35 


MORLEASE 


-.27 


MORPOWR 


-.19 


MORSTRIP 


-.19 


MORRAILR 


-.22 


MINGCOMP 


-.38 


RECIVPAY 


.05 


AGPTENTL 


.20 


SULFUR 


.01 


7MINES 


.14 


POORTMBR 


.22 



AGEMPLOY 


.09 


GUILTY RS 


.09 


ISSUEDIS 


.11 


INTIMRES 


-.11 


BESTMINE 


.27 


MINRSRES 


.07 


SCLCOSTS 


.10 


PORLYINF 


-.07 


TEACHTMP 


-.25 


NEWCHRCH 


.10 


DESRCONS 


.04 


OBJMOVE 


.25 


POPTIES 


.03 


EVALPLNS 


.21 


COALTAX 


.05 


COCONCRN 


-.16 


BNFTRESD 


-.13 


BNFTCITY 


.02 


COALEFCT 


-.26 


AGPOLIND 


-.02 


DEEPMINE 


.12 


BEACH DS 


-.03 


MTNESBTR 


.21 


MNTANLAW 


.03 


MECOAL 


.06 


MERATE 


.16 



- 94 



TABLE - PERSONAL ACQUAINTANCE OWNERSHIP AND AREA ATTRACTION 
4L MEASURES ASSOCIATED WITH NUMBER OF CHILDREN FOR 

259 DECKER-BIRNEY RESIDENTS, SUMMER 1974 



Personal 


Acquaintance 


Ovmersnip 


Measures 


Area Attraction 


Measures 








Measures 




KNOCOP 


.18 


0WN4WHL 


.19 


DECBEAUT 


.01 


KNOTCHR 


.18 


OWNCYCL 


.26 


DECCONV 


.06 


KNOGROC 


.38 


OWNSNMB 


.21 


DECHLTH 


.09 


KNOELECT 


.22 


OWNPWRBT 


.02 


DECCRIM 


-.01 


KNOPHYS 


-.01 


OWN CMP R 


.15 


DECPOLL 


-.13 


KNOCAFE 


.11 


OWNTENT 


.01 


DECFAM 


.06 


KNOMINST 


.00 


OWNCCSKI 


-.30 


DECCOST 


.00 


KNOHRDWR 


.24 


OWNSKI 


-.13 


DECINHRT 


.01 


KNOSPRT 


.05 


OWNWSKI 


-.27 


DECFRND 


-.11 


KNOFIRE 


.09 


OWNFISH 


.23 


DECREC 


-.06 


KNOAUTO 


.11 


OWNBOW 


-.06 


DECCLTM 


.09 


KNOSERV 


.27 


OWNPSTL 


.06 


DECBUSNS 


.06 


KNOPLUMB 


-.12 


OWN GUN 


.44 


DECROOTS 


-.07 


KNONRS 


.09 


OWNMOVIE 


.26 


DECLTFE 


-.18 


KNOMOTEL 


.24 


OWN CAM 


-.13 






KNOBNKR 


.24 


OWNHORS 


.21 







- 95 - 



diverse persons. Parents are more likely to know grocers (fc- -3ft), 
electricians (t - .22), hardware store owners ( - .24), service station 
operators (ft - .27), motel operators (ft- .24) and bankers (o- .24). 
Interestingly, each of these occupations is in the public sector. No 
differences occur with regard to public sector occupation, possibly 
because of greater participation in the public sector by non-parents. 

Summary 

The association between having children and measures generated 
through the interview emerge as some of the most complex relationships 
in the study. Although the associations are not as strong as others 
found in the analysis, they do show consistent differences among persons 
with differing numbers of children. Generally, the greater number of 
children, the less the satisfaction with the area, the greater the 
knowledge and participation in the area, the more favorable toward 
development and planning. Unmarried persons tend toward keeping the 
area as it currently is rather than looking favorably toward growth. 
Thus, they oppose growth and (perhaps because it smacks of change, 
development) . 

The author suspects that the differences among non-parents may 
be more consistent and profound than among parents. That is, he 
suspects a polarity in responses may be occurring more among non- 
parents than parents, which may partially account for the confusing 
inconsistencies in their responses. 



- 96 - 



Sex of Respondent 

Rural areas in the United States tend to have relatively high 
sex ratios and the Decker-Birney Area is no exception to this tendency. 
(Pushkin, 1974) Among the respondents are 134 men and 125 women, a 
sex ratio of 107. Tn another conformity with the demographic norm, 
rural areas usually have older men than women. (Lundberg, Shrag, 
Larsen, Catton, 1963) Again, the data indicate the Decker-Birnev 
Area follows the rural trend. Excepting persons under 21, each 
successive age category shows the percentage of men is greater than 
for women. This difference is reinforced within the area since women 
are more likely to reside in Ashland than in the rural nortion of 
the nlanning unit (0= .37). 

The geographic roots for the sexes are essentially the same 
although men are slightly more likely to have heen raised in Montana. 
Women more frequently were raised in towns and cities than men (f- .34) 
and have generally lived in the area for fewer years ( jf« .34). Twentv- 
three and nine tenths percent of the men have spent more than 50 years 
in the area compared to 12.8% of the women. Conversely, 2*7 of the 
women have lived there for less than six years compared to 10.97 of the 
men. This longevity in the area is particularly reflected in the 
expectation to remain there. Ninety-eight and four tenths percent of the 
men have not decided to move. A strong although weaker attachment is 
shown bv the 8R. 87 of the women who feel the same wav. Most women 
(91.27), then, like most men (^7.07) regard themselves as Montanans 
although the association is stronger for men than for women ( fl - .51). 
Family incomes reported bv men and women are 



- 97 - 



approximately equal as are occupations. 

The sex of respondent does not appear to be strongly associated 
with the number of children, ages of children, current location of 
children, or sentiments of children regarding living in Montana. A 
difference occurs when parents were asked if children would return to 
Montana if jobs were available for them. Women more frequently report 
their children would not return even if jobs were available (fl"- .25). 

Sex is among the most universal variables for distinguishing 
members of a society. Men and women are socialized to occupy different 
roles and consequently to hold different expectations and perform 
different tasks. Numerous studies document the association between 
respondent's sex and responses. Most frequently, differences are evident 
along sex-role related dimensions. That is, differential sex-role 
related opportunities may affect how a respondent may feel concerning 
such matters. For example, women feel more vulnerable to inflation than 
men (^= .25). In the Decker-Birney Area sexual socialization probably 
occurs no less than in other locations. For example few women consider 
themselves the head of the household (ft- .94), and (Q~ .79) of the 
women respondents are wives. At issue here, however, is whether 
respondents' sex heavily influecnes feelings regarding the area, poten- 
tial development and planning. This means that respondents are evaluating 
these matters in terms of alternatives which mav be relatively independent 
of sex in comparison to other variables. The responses of a rural ranch 
wife, for example, may be strongly affected by her attachment to a 
particular place in an agrarian economy. Her responses may therefore 



- 98 - 



be more similar to those of men with rural agrarian positions than to 
those of women with urban, non-agricultural positions. 

Although sex is not felt to be an important causal variable for 
most responses asked in this research, it is anticipated to discrimin- 
ate along some dimensions of social control. In such cases further 
study might indicate how sex-related opportunities and their attendant 
social controls are associated with sexually differentiated responses. 

Satisfaction Measures 

Both men and women generally agree that the Decker-Birney Area is 
a desirable place to live. (See Appendix A) Men appear to be slightly 
more satisfied than women on most measures. (See Table X) Men more 
frequently reported shopping facilities were adequate ($ ■ .20), perhaps 
a reflection of which sex has the highest minimal standards for shopping 
facilities. On the other hand, women were less likely to report a need 
for additional recreational facilities (0" .31). Perhaps the supportive 
role of women is shown by their being more likely to report a need for 
1ob opportunities for young persons ($■ .23), for public housing (0 ■ .30) 
and for facilities for senior citizens ("0- .27). Men (87.3%) felt, 
even more strongly than women (80.0%) that the area is a good place to 
rear children ($" -26) and that people are more helpful than in other 
places (0 - .30). (See Table 4M) 

Planning and Development 

Men and women generally failed to differ on questions regarding 
land use, planning and development generally as shown in Table AN. 



- 99 



TABLE 



MEASURES OF SATISFACTION AND GENERAL NON-COAL 
PLANNING MEASURES ASSOCIATED WITH SEX FOR 259 
DECKER-BIRNEY RESIDENTS, SUMMER 1974 



Area and Personal Satisfaction 
Measures 



General Non-Coal Area Planning 
Measures 



AREHAP 


-.17 


AREPOP 


.08 


AREDESIR 


-.06 


USPOP 


.16 


ARETAX 


-.04 


FAVRDPAV 


.13 


ARESCHL 


-.10 


FAVWILD 


-.13 


ARESHOP 


-.20 


FAVCONDV 


.13 


ARE CONST 


-.02 


FAVPUBAC 


.22 


ARESAFE 


-.13 


FAVCLOSE 


.05 


ARETRAF 


.01 


AGSTPLAN 


.06 


AREPOL 


.01 


AGFDPLAN 


.10 


ARERECO 


.14 


AGINDCOM 


.11 


ARERECI 


.31 


PROFSELF 


.12 


AREMED 


-.08 


PROFFRND 


.01 


ARESXED 


.01 


PROFPWR 


.10 


AREADED 


-.12 


PROFAREA 


-.01 


AREHELTH 


.15 


FAVPLAN 


-.02 


AREJOBOP 


.23 


OPPLAN 


-.01 


ARECOUNS 


.19 


SCIOPP 


.01 


ARESENR 


-.27 


SCIVOTE 


.12 


ARE CHILD 


-.26 


WHOPLAN 


-.02 


AREMINLV 


-.05 


OGHTPLAN 


.13 


AREHOUSP 


.30 


PLANHARM 


.08 


AREHLP 


-.30 


STRPRCLM 


-.00 


ARECROWD 


-.17 


AREAPLN 


-.20 


ARESCNDS 


.05 


PLNFIND 1 


-.14 


AREINDPW 


.06 


PLNFIND 2 


-.10 


AREHWYCN 


.13 


PLNEARLY 


-.21 


AREPOPGW 


.10 


PLNRESLT 


-.00 


ARELVCON 


.03 


AGINDSUP 


-.00 


AGHELP 


.14 


AGS CI 


.04 


AGSATIS 


.10 


AGINFL 


-.25 


SEEBTR 


.03 


AGPEACE 


.06 


SEECHG 


-.27 


AGPOWR 


.05 


PWRMINE 


.06 


AGINFAV 


-.13 


SHFTRANC 


.18 


ENGYCRIS 


.27 






NOSTOP 


.05 






DEMVOTE 


.04 






LOCAL GOV 


-.04 






OLDTMRS 


.14 






EMPLYSGO 


.04 






BADEMPLY 


.07 






LVNGCNDT 


.13 






CHILDITR 


.11 






CHILDLDR 


-.12 






EPLTRES 


.03 






FEELPART 


.02 



100 - 



A few exception to this generality occurred. For example, women would 
like to see real estate developers be required to donate land for public 
use more frequently than men ( $" - .26). They were less likelv to have 
felt that Montana coal should be mined in order to satisfy the energy 
plans of the Nixon administration (f-.20) or that an energy crisis is 
severe (Q- .27). They also more frequently reported that strip mining 
will result in less food production ("J" '22), that clean air should 
not be sacrificed for industry and 1obs ( jf - .26), that 1obs are more 
important than a clean environment (0 ■ .23), that deep mining is 
preferable to strip mining ( - .25), that the costs of strip and sub 
surface mining are the same (Q" .25), and that taxes resultant from 
power generation would be detrimental to the local area (0- .23). 

Women also seemed to take the position that persons who might be 
affected by development should participate in decision making more 
frequently than men. For example, they felt that Colstrip residents 
should have a stronger voice in planning that area ( Q - .22), that crop 
water will be used up by gneerating plants (Q- .22) and that companies 
should reveal development plans for evaluation ( K " .37). 

Ironically women more frequently felt that strip mining might be 
the "best thing for Montana" ( g - .25) and that there is an obligation 
to strip mine (Q- .21). 

Even though women seemed to be slightly more protective of the 
environment, they appear to be less active in planning. Women also 
appeared to know slightly less than men did about specific substantive 
issues associated with development. For example, they were less likely 



- 101- 



to know that local coal has low sulphur context ( 6 - . 35) . They were 
less likely to have heard of planning activities in the area ( - .20) 
although how they learned about the plan or results of the plan did not 
differ from male respondents. No differences were evident between the 
sexes on questions regarding how they perceive the positions of others 
on planning. Men were more likely to have noticed changes in the area 
(q= .21) and to agree that decisions to develop should be based on 
economic rather than social reason (0 - .23). Men more frequently felt 
that coal companies respond to the law rather than altruism ( ft" ■ .30). 

It appears that women, perhaps due to their greater vulnerability 
i.e. relatively more subject to control, have slightly greater svmnathv 
for social welfare and environmental protection. Such a hvpothesis 
certainly is created from perusing rather than resultant testing of the 
data. It would be interesting to examine the hypothesis more exhaust- 
ively. However, it should be kept in mind that men and women usually 
answered in the same manner. Even questions showing association with 
sex tended to have the majority of men agreeing with women. 
For example, see Table 4N Sex X Ag. Employ. 

Many measures of social attachment to the area, such as knowledge 
of other persons, familiarity with specific information concerning 
the area, ownership of recreational items, and number of years resided 
in area, indicate potentially less attachment to the area for women 
than for men. However, as has been repeatedly pointed out, differences 
along these dimensions may be more strongly associated with the social 
controls affecting universal sex-role related activities and beliefs 



- 102 - 



TABLE - THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN SEX OF 259 RESPONDENTS IN 
4N THE DECKER-BIRNEY AREA AND THE ISSUE THAT JOBS ARE 

MORE IMPORTANT IN THE AREA THAN IS A CLEAN ENVIRONMENT 



JOBS IN THE AREA ARE MORE IMPORTANT THAN A CLEAN 
ENVIRONMENT (AG EMPLOY) 





COUNT 












ROW PCT 


AGREE 


NEUTRAL 


DISAGREE 


ROW 




COL PCT 








TOTAL 




TOT PCT 


1 


2 


3 




SEX 
















33 


34 


67 


134 


MALE 




24.6 


25.4 


50.0 


51.7 






66.0 


51.5 


46.9 








12.7 


13.1 


25.9 





FEMALE 



17 


32 


76 


125 


13.6 


25.6 


60.8 


48.3 


34.0 


48.5 


53.1 




6.6 


12.4 


29.3 





COLUMN 


50 


66 


143 


259 


TOTAL 


19.3 


25.5 


55.2 


100.0 



dr- -23 



- 103 - 



than social controls reflecting differential opportunity structure 
in the area. Only further research could determine the relative 
effects. (See Table 40) 

Ownership Measures 

Many items of possession are typically associated with sex. 
Ownership of such items was evident among respondents. Men were more 
likely to own motorcycles and snowmobiles (|f- .35) and .21%) although 
only 13% of them own cycles and 16% own snowmobiles. Similar differen- 
ces occurred for ownership of campers, skis, fishing rods, bows and 
guns. In each case, these objects reflected potential utilization of 
the environment, utilization which seems to typify men in the area 
more than women. That is, ownership reflects some extent of social 
control. Ownership measures, more than most other types of measures, 
appear to differentiate men from women respondents. However, whether 
ownership variables would differentiate along planning and development 
issues, if sex was held constant, remains unexplored for this analysis. 

As we have seen, respondents of both sexes generallv liked the 
Decker-Rirney Area. There were several reported reasons for continued 
residence in the area. Both sexes agreed that the beauty and absence 
of pollution in the area are important. The proximity to their work 
also was important to men and women. Other reasons provided differed 
among men and women. For example men were more likely to mention the 
low cost of living in the area as a major reason for remaining (0 - .20) 
Men also mentioned business as a primary reason for remaining (J- . 2R). 

- 104 - 



TABLE 
40 



MEASURES (GAMMA) OF COAL AND ENERGY DEVELOPMENT 
PLANNING SENTIMENTS AND PERSONAL SOCIAL AND 
ENVIRONMENTAI SENTIMENTS ASSOCIATED WITH SEX 
FOR 259 DECKER-BIRNEY RESIDENTS, SUMMER 1974 



Coal and Energy Development and 
Planning Sentiment Measures 



Personal, Social Environment 
and Coal Sentiment Measures 



AGCOAL 


-.20 


AGEMPLOY 


.23 


AGSACR 


.26 


GUILTY RS 


.04 


AGNATNED 


.09 


ISSUEDIS 


.07 


AGOWNED 


.06 


INTIMRES 


.14 


CO ALE CON 


-.23 


BESTMINE 


.25 


COMPCMP 


-.30 


MINRSRES 


-.02 


NATNEED 


-.05 


SCLCOSTS 


.02 


ENOUGHMN 


.09 


PORLYINF 


-.13 


OWEELECT 


.11 


TEACHTMP 


.11 


DVLPINDS 


.21 


NEWCHRCH 


.01 


INDPLAN 


.19 


DESRCONS 


.01 


INDSTGTS 


.03 


OBJMOVE 


-.05 


AGFOOD 


.22 


POPTIES 


-.19 


PRVMINE 


.06 


EVALPLNS 


.37 


RIVDAM 


.12 


COALTAX 


-.13 


MINGCOMP 


-.17 


COCONCRN 


.05 


LANDCOND 


.01 


BNFTRESD 


-.11 


WTRCROPS 


-.22 


BNFTCITY 


.16 


SACRCOAL 


-.04 


COALEFCT 


.12 


DRYUP 


-.06 


AGPOLIND 


.36 


MPCRECLM 


.11 


DEEPMINE 


-.25 


EMINTDMN 


.16 


BEACHDS 


-.04 


MPCNOAFF 


.02 


MINESBTR 


.04 


STRPTEXPN 


.25 


MNTANLAW 


-.18 


PREFRSTP 


.02 


ME COAL 


.16 


MORLEASE 


.17 


ME RATE 


.09 


MORPOWR 


.15 






MORSTRIP 


.16 






MORRAILR 


.12 






MINGCOMP 


.17 






RECIVPAY 


.17 






AGPTENTL 


.14 






SULFUR 


-.35 






7MINES 


-.17 






POORTMBR 


.01 







105 - 



I 



Men are more likely to know a variety of persons in various 
occupations than are women. One can only speculate what reason (s) 
account(s) for these differences. Perhaps relatively greater freedom 
of movement puts them into contact with others. Perhaps the responsi- 
bility of acting as the task-oriented representative of the family 
more frequently provides men opportunity for meeting persons in differ- 
ent occupations. Whatever the reason, men were more likely to know a 
law officer ({- .29), a cafe owner (ft- .21) and an automobile 
mechanic (0 - .21). (See Table AP) 

Summary 

As had been anticipated sex did not appear to differentiate 
responses as strongly as did many other indicators. Slight consistent 
differences did exist, however, which should be mentioned even though 
subsequent analysis may show they occurred for spurious reasons. 
Women appeared to be slightly more sympathetic to ideas supportive of 
a pro-environmental position. That is, they tended to oppose environ- 
mental degradation which might result from coal mining or poor planning. 
In spite of these learnings, women were less likely to be informed about 
efforts toward planning or about facts which might be associated with 
planning. Women also were, less likely than men to participate in the 
outdoor activities or to know as wide a variety of persons within the 
area. 



- 106 - 



I 
I 



TABLE - PERSONAL ACQUAINTANCE OWNERSHIP AND AREA ATTRACTION 
4P MEASURES ASSOCIATED WITH SEX FOR 259 DECKER-BIRNEY 

RESIDENTS, SUMMER 1974 



Personal Acquaintance 


Ownership 


Measures 


Area Attraction 


Measures 




0WN4WHL 


-.16 


Measures 
DECBEAUT 




KNOCOP 


-.29 


.04 


KNOTCHR 


.13 


OWNCYCL 


-.36 


DECCONV 


-.04 


KNOGROC 


-.05 


OWNSNMB 


-.21 


DECHLTH 


-.19 


KNOELECT 


-.07 


OWNPWRBT 


-.07 


DECCRIM 


-.09 


KNOPHYS 


-.08 


OWN CMP R 


-.27 


DECPOLL 


-.09 


KNOCAFE 


-.21 


OWNTENT 


-.10 


DECFAM 


.16 


KNOMINST 


-.12 


OWNCCSKI 


-.09 


DECCOST 


-.20 


KNOHRDWR 


-.07 


OWNSKI 


-.03 


DECINHRT 


-.13 


KNOSPRT 


-.03 


OWNWSKI 


-.31 


DECFRND 


.08 


KNOFIRE 


.15 


OWNFISH 


-.20 


DECREC 


-.10 


KNOAUTO 


-.21 


OWNBOW 


-.20 


DECCLIM 


-.19 


KNOSERV 


-.11 


OWNPSTL 


-.27 


DECBUSNS 


-.28 


KNOPLUMB 


-.03 


OWNGUN 


-.41 


DECROOTS 


.01 


KNONRS 


.19 


OWNMOVIE 


.15 


DECLIFE 


-.12 


KNOMOTEL 


-.08 


OWN CAM 


-.17 






KNOBNKR 


-.06 


OWNHORS 


-.17 







- 107 - 



I 

I 
I 
I 



I 



Chapter 5 
SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS 

Introduction 

The most common manner of analyzing differences in respondents 
behaviors of feelings concerning a variety of subjects is to look 
toward individual characteristics of that person. That is, the sex, 
age, occupation and other qualities associated with individuals probably 
are most frequently called upon to account for how they act or feel. 
This chapter will look at respondents in a slightly different manner. 
Instead of being classified by their individual characteristics, respon- 
dents will instead be considered in terms of the characteristic of their 
relationship to their environment. Thus, the area in which they current- 
ly reside, the number of years they have lived in the study area and the 
kind of area in which they grew up become the indicators of the socio- 
demographic variable described and analyzed throughout this chapter. 

The measures utilized in this chapter are indicative of the empirical 
and theoretical importance of time and space on the behavior of persons. 
The dimensions of time and space constitute the primary variables of the 
human ecological perspective which analyzes human behavior from the 
viewpoint that men behave in accordance with a set of social rules found in 
particular geographic settings. (Hawley, 1950) The type of location 
and the time spent there provide the social as well as geographic miliew 
in which persons live. Consequently, if a miliew is somewhat unique or 
different from another miliew, the responses can be expected to differ- 



- ioa - 



entiate patterns. 

In the current research, these measures indicate a difference in 
social control. It was anticipated, and largely supported, that the 
adaptation persons had exhibited through their surroundings would 
reflect their relative acceptance of the area and changes within the 
area. The strength and direction of this anticipated relationship are 
reported in this chapter. 

Number of Years Lived in The Study Area 

The number of years a respondent has lived in the Decker-Birney 
Area is one of the most important indicators of attachment to the area. 
The decision to remain in the area is an implicit approval of the 
location in comparison to other locations. That decision involves more 
than mere attachment to the physical characteristics of the area. Rather, 
the environment provides the arena in which family attachments are 
established, business is transacted, education is obtained and other 
meaningful activities in life are experienced. (Pollak, 1967) 
Sentiments attached to these activities becomes associated with place 
in such a way that a place takes on value to persons beyond the 
desirability of earth, air and water. And the more of these activities 
and sentiments which are associated with a place, the greater is the 
extent of social control on that person. Consequently, a strong 
association is anticipated between yeara in area, as a measure of social 
control, and feelings related to planning and development of the area. 

The years spent in the Decker-Birney Area are not entirely indepen- 



109 - 



dent of other factors. Thi9 means that associations reported between 
year9 in the area and particular activities and sentiments may be a 
partial consequence of other characteristics of respondents. That is, 
48 (18.5%) long term residents are heads of households (83%). They are 
by definition older than the 55 (21.2%) short term residents. (See 
Appendix) Sixty-eight and eight-tenths percent of residents of over 50 
years duration in the Decker-Birney Area are over 60 years of age, where- 
as 54.5% of residents under five years are under 30 years old ( Q = .23). 
Ninety percent of 50-year residents were raised in Montana, compared to 
55% of under 5 year residents who were outside Montana. Over three- 
fourths of long term residents had lived in Montana before moving to the 
study area compared to less than one-half of recent arrivals (Q ■ .22). 
In fact, 75% of the old-timers are natives to the area compared to only 
5.6% of recent arrivals ( $- -57). Incidentally, this strongly indicates 
that most newcomers to the area are from out of state (0= .45). The 
differences between long term and short term residents is even more 
pronounced when the type of community in which they were raised is 
considered. Ninety-two percent of long term residents were raised on 
a farm compared to only 43.6% of recent arrivals ( ^ - .53). 

Once settled, many friends of the old-timers also moved to the study 
area to loin them whereas relatively few (10.9%) newcomers report 
similar occurrences. 

Though the number of children reported by newcomers and old-timers 
is similar, the ages of the children of old-timers is, of course, higher 
(0= .75). However, among all respondents with adult children living 

- 110 - 



I 



elsewhere, newcomers more frequently reported that their children like 
where thev currently live better than they would Montana (if m .21). 
And, they further more frequently reported that their children would 
not come to Montana even if a good 1ob was available for them ( 0= .21). 

Furthermore, recent arrivals appeared to be permanent residents 
far less frequently than old-timers (6= .31). Twenty-two nercent of 
the newcomers planned to leave whereas no old-timers planned to leave. 
Old-timers more frequently felt themselves to be Montanans than recent 
arrivals ( =■ • 45) . 

Partially as a result of age, an inverse relationship exists 
between time of residence and educational achievement ( Y"= .39). Fifty- 
nine and six tenths percent of the old-timers have not graduated from 
high school whereas only 20.8% of newcomers have failed to do so. In 
light of this finding, an unusual association exists between income and 
years of residence. Old-timers reported the highest incomes of all 
residential categories (j) =■ ,22). This relationship reflects two 
factors. First, educational levels have been increasing in the United 
States for several decades. Old-timers are residuals of an era when 
high school graduation was much rarer than it now is. Second, the 
economy in the area is predominantly agricultural. Agriculture, more 
than most occupations, nas held the potential for relatively high incomes 
in spite of relatively low educational achievement. Moreover, low 
educational achievement should not be interpreted to indicate that old- 
timers are illiterate or uneducated. 

Interviewers were continually struck by literacy, familiarity 
with social and political issues, and the alertness of many of the 



- Ill - 



older respondents in the study. The implication that old-timers are 
ranchers is further born out by their place of residence. Eighty-five 
and four tenths percent are rural dwellers compared to 60.07 of the 
newcomers and 37.2% of all others. 

Satisfaction Measures 

When persons have spent over fifty years in the same area, they 
should be expected to have found the characteristics of the area 
satisfactory and desirable. This certainly occurs in the Decker-Birney 
Area where strong associations are found between years of residence 
and a variety of satisfaction variables. The longer persons have lived 
in the area, the more likely they are to feel it is the most desirable 
place they have lived (j- .46). Old-timers are more likely to feel 
the shopping facilities are adequate (0=» .40), road construction and 
maintenance in the area are of high quality (0= . 3«) , sufficient 
highway construction already exists (0 - .27"), so additional paved 
roads are unnecessary (0= .27). They are more likelv to see the area 
as a safe one in which to live ( If" .38) and a good place to rear 
children (if= .57). They are satisfied with the indoor ( = .29) and 
outdoor ( (f= .30) recreational facilities, health urograms (fl~= .44) 
and the medical care ( fl - .31). Old-timers are more likelv to feel 
adult education more ( Q - .31) and sex education in the schools as 
unnecessary (lf~ .37). They do not feel additional counselling 
services would be useful «J - .46). Nor are they likelv to perceive 
a public housing problem (>"- .53). While a malority of each category 



- 112 - 



of respondents reports that people are more helpful in the Decker- 
Birney Area than in other places, old-timers more frequently feel 
this way (J- .62). (See Table 5A) 

Planning and Development 

The broadly based satisfaction expressed by persons who have 
spent many years in the Decker-Birney Area at times seems to obscure 
a sensitivity to changes within the area although they are more likely 
to have noticed changes ()f- .48). Persons who have arrived more 
recently often seemed more aware and felt more strongly about changes 
than did old-timers, although old-timers felt that changes generally 
had been for the worse (f - .28). For example, recent arrivals were more 
likely to feel scenic resources are being destroyed (Q - -.24), that 
population growth in the area is problematic ( tf- -.45). Recent arrivals 
also more frequently supported establishing wilderness areas ( Q =• -.26) 
and required builders to set aside acreage for public use (jj = -.36). 

Consequently, new arrivals expressed willingness to shut down 
generating plants polluting beyond acceptable standards (]j= -.21). 
Over ninety percent of new arrivals felt that development decisions 
should be based on non-economic reasons; that is, considerably stronger 
than the 81% among old-timers ( Q - -.22). Still newcomers were less 
suspicious of land reclamation efforts. They (21.8*') felt that coal 
companies have compassion for the land in contrast to the 8.3% of old- 
timers who feel that way (Q - .20). Newcomers more frequently preferred 
deep mining to strip mining ( Q- .21). They also were far less likely 

- 113 - 



r 
i 



TABLE - MEASURES OF SATISFACTION AND GENERAL NON-COAL 
5A PLANNING MEASURES ASSOCIATED WITH YEARS IN AREA 

FOR 259 DECKER-BIRNEY RESIDENTS, SUMMER 1974 



Area and Personal Satisfaction 
Measures 



AREHAP 


.16 


AREDESIR 


.48 


ARETAX 


.12 


ARESCHL 


.00 


ARESHOP 


.40 


ARECONST 


.38 


ARESAFE 


.38 


ARETRAF 


.12 


AREPOL 


-.11 


ARE RE CO 


-.30 


ARERECI 


-.52 


AREMED 


.30 


ARESXED 


.37 


AREADED 


.31 


AREHELTH 


-.44 


AREJOBOP 


.15 


ARECOUNS 


-.46 


ARESENR 


.49 


ARECHILD 


.57 


AREMINLV 


-.16 


AREHOUSP 


.53 


AREHLP 


.62 


ARE CROWD 


.14 


ARESCNDS 


-.24 


AREINDPW 


-.19 


AREHWYCN 


.27 


AREPOPGW 


.45 


ARELVCON 


-.17 


AGHELP 


.12 


AGSATIS 


.29 


SEEBTR 


.28 


SEECHG 


.48 


PWRMINE 


.01 


SHFTRANC 


-.23 



General Non-Coal Area Planning 
Measures 



AREPOP 


.10 


US POP 


.14 


FAVRDPAV 


-.27 


FAVWILD 


.26 


FAVCONDV 


-.06 


FAVPUBAC 


-.36 


FAVCLOSE 


-.01 


AGSTPLAN 


.36 


AGFDPLAN 


.40 


AGINDCOM 


.17 


PROFSELF 


-.36 


PROFFRND 


-.25 


PROFPWR 


.12 


PROFAREA 


-.17 


FAVPLAN 


-.11 


OPPLAN 


.18 


SCIOPP 


-.22 


SCIVOTE 


-.31 


WHOPLAN 


-.12 


OGHTPLAN 


.13 


PLANHARM 


-.30 


STRPRCLM 


.20 


AREAPLN 


-.01 


PLNFIND 1 


.05 


PLNFIND 2 


-.16 


PLNEARLY 


.11 


PLNRESLT 


-.48 


AGINDSUP 


.09 


AGS CI 


-.20 


ACINFL 


.29 


AGPEACE 


.01 


AGPOWR 


.06 


AGINFAV 


-.10 


ENGYCRIS 


-.25 


NOSTOP 


.03 


DEMVOTE 


-.37 


LOCALGOV 


.06 


OLDTMRS 


-.25 


EMPLYSGO 


.14 


BADEMPLY 


.24 


LVNGCNDT 


.32 


CHTLniTR 


-.01 


CHILDLDR 


-.14 


EPITRES 


.02 


FEELPART 


-.15 



- 114 - 



to perceive a serious energy crisis (^ = .25). Old-timers also felt 
less in control of inflation (J*- -.28) but more satisfied with life 

(IT- -29). 

Old-timers generally appeared less likely to acknowledge or to seek 
to halt changes. Though most (77%) felt that scientific knowledge should 
be used to deal with problems, they were less likely to feel this way 
than recent arrivals (tf- -.20). Old-timers were less foavorable toward 
using state (J'- -.36) or federal planners ( |f- -.41) in Montana. They 
felt more strongly that privately owned resources should be controlled 
by their owners, ( 7j- -.21) and that the rate of coal development should 
be controlled by persons like themselves ($" - -.22). Despite a strong 
majority (85.4%) supporting the notion of "one man one vote," fewer 
old-timers felt this way than recent arrivals (0= .37). They further 
believed that ranch owners are continuing to hold political power more 
frequently than do the newer arrivals (0 - -.23) although they (81.3%) 
agreed with the way power is distributed (Q - .25). 

Feelings expressed regarding planning generally are not associated 
with years spent in the area. Knowledge regarding plans and sources 
for that knowledge are essentially the same for all categories by 
tenure. However, old-timers were less likely to have heard of effects 
of planning ( Q - -.48). They also were much more suspicious of planners 
coming into the area ( jf- -.36). And, they felt that their close friends 
($"=. -.25) feel similarly suspicious. Old-timers stated they would more 
likely sign petitions to oppose (fl - -.22) and less likely vote for a 
comprehensive plan ( }f" -.31). This suspicion of control was especially 



- 115 - 



directed to outsiders. 76.6% of old-timers felt that local residents 
or officials should decide on land use in comparison to 59.37 of recent 
arrivals who feel that way ( $"= . 38) . Old-timers also felt that 
residents should decide reclamation of stripped lands instead of 
outsiders ( ^ - .20). 

The antipathy expressed by long-timers is perceived by them to 
be in their own self interest. They were less likely to feel potential 
benefit from a plan ( Q ■ .30). They strongly agreed, (83.3%) however, 
that Decker-Birney Area is good agricultural land and should not be 
strip mined (|» -.27). A smaller majority (58.3%) of old-timers than 
newcomers (76.9%) felt that national forests in the area are well 
managed (0 s .24). 

The established position of old-timers seems to privide them with 
a perspective on social activities and social change which are consid- 
erably different from newcomers. Newcomers, for example, reported 
acceptance of newcomers into local churches less frequently than old- 
timers did (^- -.35). (See Table 5B) 

Ownership 

The general positions occupied by newcomers and old-timers are in 
part reflectedby property. Newcomers were more likely to own items 
except for objects associated with agriculture work. Most of these 
items favor young persons because they are associated with activities 
favored by the young. 

Because of their agricultural status, old-timers were nearly twice 



- 116 - 



TABLE - MEASURES (GAMMA) OF COAL AND ENERGY DEVELOPMENT 
5B PLANNING SENTIMENTS AND PERSONAL SOCIAL AND 

ENVIRONMENTAL SENTIMENTS ASSOCIATED WITH YEARS 

IN AREA FOR 259 DECKER-BIRNEY RESIDENTS, SUMMER 1974 



Coal and Energy Development and 
Planning Sentiment Mea3ure3 



Personal, Social Environment 
and Coal Sentiment Measures 



AG COAL 


.07 


AGEMPLOY 


.13 


AGSACR 


.12 


GUILTY RS 


-.06 


AGNATNED 


.07 


ISSUEDIS 


.OR 


AGOWNED 


.20 


INTIMRES 


-.10 


CO ALE CON 


.22 


BESTMINE 


-.11 


COMPCMP 


.20 


MINRSRES 


.01 


NATNEED 


.01 


SCLCOSTS 


-.19 


ENOUGHMN 


-. 08 


PORLYINF 


.OR 


OWEELECT 


.01 


TEACHTMP 


-.00 


DVLPINDS 


.01 


NEWCHRCH 


.35 


INDPLAN 


-. 19 


DESRCONS 


-.15 


INDSTGTS 

AGFOOD 

PRVMINE 


.01 
-.09 
-.11 


OBJMOVE 
POPTIES 
EVALPLNS 


-.12 

.15 

-.02 


RIVDAM 


-.09 


COALTAX 


.10 


MINGCOMP 


.02 


COCONCRN 


.13 


LANDCOND 


-.03 


BNFTRESD 


.16 


WTRCROPS 


.05 


BNFTCITY 


-.18 


SACRCOAL 


-.04 


COALEFCT 


.01 


DRYUP 


.15 


AGPOLIND 


-.21 


MPCRECLM 


-.01 


DEEPMINE 


.21 


EMINTDMN 


.00 


BEACHDS 


.03 


MPCNOAFF 


-.06 


MINESBTR 


-.08 


STRPTEXPN 


-. 14 


MNTANLAW 


.10 


PREFRSTP 


.01 


ME COAL 


.00 


MORLEASE 


-.10 


MERATE 


.22 


MORPOWR 


-.07 






MORSTRIP 


-.03 






MORRAILR 


-.04 






MINGCOMP 


-.02 






RECIVPAY 


-.10 






AGPTENTL 


-.27 






SULFUR 


.14 






7MINES 


. 15 






POORTMBR 


-.02 







- 117 - 



as likelv to own a horse ({ " .36), four-wheel-drive vehicles (fr « -.32). 
On the other hand, probably because of age, they were less likelv to 
own a motorcycle ({- .28), cross country skis ( (f- -.fi2), regular skis 
( ^- -.36) or water skis ({ - -.40). Old-timers were also less likely 

to own a bow ( (j =• -.45). 

Some reasons for remaining in the study area provided by respondents 
also differed considerably. Old-timers more frequentlv reported reasons 
of health as very important to their remaining in the area (0 - -.30). 
They were also more attracted to the relative absence of crime (0 - -.29) 
and the "way of life" ( jf- -.33). The nearby presence of family also 
was more important to old-timers ( <$"- -.40) as was inheritance (fi = -.49), 
presumably of land and business ((f« -.41). They also were more drawn 
to their friends who live in the area ( f - -.41) and to their deep social 
roots ( Q- -.67). 

Newer arrivals, on the other hand, were more attracted to the 
specific character of the area. Access to recreation was much more 
important to newcomers (0" .30). 

Probably no set of questions so dramatically expresses the importance 
of living in the Decker-Birney study area to a particular category of 
respondents than do these questions for the residents of long tenure. 
Friends, family, environmental characteristics, way of life and business 
all combine to form the deep social roots reported to be so imnortant 
to the old-timers. These are the varieties of attachment which form 
the foundations of social control and, consequently, account for 
relatively strong differences on other questions throughout the research 
which distinguish newcomers from old-timers. 

- 118 - 



As should be expected, the longer one has been a resident, the 
more diverse persons one should know in the area. Old-timers 
appeared to be more likely to know persons in almost every occupation: 
electricians (£- .27), physicians ( jf - .32), cafe owners ( f- .20), 
ministers & - .30), sporting goods dealers (^- .36), automobile 
dealers ((- .20), plumbers ({« .25), and motel operators ( - . 36) (Table 5C) 

The general profiles of respondents according to the number of 
years residency differ considerably. On the one hand are the more 
recent arrivals who tend to be more urban and less agricultural than 
old-timers. Newcomers are generally more recentive to planning, 
especially through implementation of outside authorities. The feelings 
tend to reflect greater sensitivity to currently publicized issues of 
land use planning and environmental policy. 

On the other hand are the old-timers, many of whom have become 
integral parts of the social system in the area. They know the persons 
and love the area. They cherish the control of the area by the persons 
who reside there. Their greatest concern seems to center around who 
will make the decisions and how those decisions will be made rather than 
with what decision is made. They are wary of outsiders and warv of 
controls, even if outsiders and controls might help to protect aspects 
of the area which they personally value. More than any other category, 
old-timers in the Decker-Rirney Area conform to the ethic of individ- 
ualism described earlier in this report. This conformity, expressive 
of attachment to a particular life style, clearly demonstrates some 
of the paradoxes associated with values which ultimately prove to be 
mutually exclusive. 



- 119 - 



TABLE - PERSONAL ACQUAINTANCE OWNERSHIP AND AREA ATTRACTION 
5 C MEASURES ASSOCIATED WITH YEARS IN AREA FOR 259 

DECKER-BIRNEY RESIDENTS, SUMMER 19 74 



Personal 


Acquaintance 


Ownership 


Measures 


Area Attra 


ction 


Measures 








Measures 




KNOCOP 


.19 


OWN4WHL 


. 32 


DECBEAUT 


.05 


KNOTCHR 


.18 


OWNCYCL 


-.28 


DECCONV 


-.08 


KNOGROC 


.17 


OWNSNMB 


.16 


DECHLTH 


.30 


KNOELECT 


.28 


OWNPWRBT 


-.12 


DECCRIM 


.29 


KNOPHYS 


.32 


OWN CMP R 


.09 


DECPOLL 


.17 


KNOCAFE 


.20 


OWNTENT 


.08 


DECFAM 


.40 


KNOMINST 


.30 


OWNCCSKI 


-.62 


DECCOST 


-.16 


KNOHRDWR 


.17 


OWNSKI 


-.36 


DECINHRT 


.49 


KNOSPRT 


.36 


OWNWSKI 


-.39 


DECFRND 


.41 


KNOFIRE 


.01 


OWNFISH 


-.07 


DECREC 


-.30 


KNOAUTO 


.20 


OWNBOW 


-.45 


DECCLIM 


.13 


KNOSERV 


.01 


OWNPSTL 


-.01 


DECBUSNS 


.41 


KNOPLUMB 


.25 


OWNCUN 


.16 


DECROOTS 


.67 


KNONRS 


.14 


OWNMOVIE 


-.09 


DECLIFE 


.33 


KNOMOTEL 


.36 


OWNCAM 


-.09 






KNOBNKR 


-.04 


OWNHORS 


.36 







120 



Where Respondents Were Raised 

During the interviewing, two popular conceptions related to the 
importance of where area residents were raised were encountered. Among 
the most common conceptions, especially prevalent among long term 
residents, was that persons who had moved from outside the area had 
no deep seated appreciation for the land and the style of life in the 
Decker-Birney Area. Outsiders were interpreted from this perspective 
as persons willing to permit undesirable development in the area. At 
the other extreme was another conception, most frequently expressed by 
townspeople in the business and construction sectors, was that residents 
raised awav from the area often opposed development because thev settled 
in the study area as a refuge against social change. From this latter 
perspective outsiders were accused of having an unrealistically romantic 
interpretation of the social and physical environments in the area. Two 
more divergent viewpoints hardly could be found. Interestingly, these 
viewpoints were most noticeable during interviews with the most divergent 
categories interviewed; rural-farm and town-nonfarra. 

It is feasible that both viewpoints are partially correct. Perhaps 
persons raised outside the area fall toward extreme categories regarding 
satisfaction with the area and consequent approval of development. 
And perhaps residents of the area are prone to have perceptions of the 
importance of outsiders as a result of their own feelings and activities 
related to area satisfaction and development. In both cases, an issue 
exists which may partially be resolved through the data presented in 
this section. 



- 121 - 



Because their reasons are so diverse, it is difficult to sav why 
outsiders have come to the study area. Some have come to find work or 
to be with loved ones while others have come to experience the way of 
life in this remote setting. The reasons for their presence, however, 
partially determine the nature of the social controls within which the 
respondents act. Still, it seems reasonable to posit that the greater 
the distance to the place where residents were raised, the less the 
social control operating upon them in the Decker-Birnev Area. Probably 
the most important measure of distance is whether respondents were 
raised in Montana or somewhere else. Being raised in the state has been 
shown to make respondents a little more susceptible to attachments in 
the area and in the state. The increased potential for family obliga- 
tions and socialization into a broader social system in the area 
increases the social controls. The increase in social control should 
affect the response patterns. 

Most respondents (62.5%0 are natives of Montana. The greater the 
distance between the area in which they grew up and Montana, the fewer 
the number of respondents. Forty respondents (15.4%) are from other 
western states, 35 respondents (13.5%) are from the midwest, and 22 
(8.5%) are from eastern states. Relatively more of the male respondents 
are from Montana (66. 4%) and eastern states (9.7%) whereas relatively 
more women are from western (18.4%) and midwestern states (16.0%). 
These figures generally support information presented throughout 
this paper that women are slightly less likely to be native Montanans. 
Educational level does not appear to be strongly related to where 



122 - 



re 3 pondent9 were raised. Midwesterners (25.77) and easterners are a 
little more likely to have attended college (38. 12/14. 5%) . The 
percentages of respondents with less than high school graduation range 
between 28.6% for easterners and 34.8% for native Montanans. 

Similarly, income appears to have no causal relationships with 
area of origin. Persons raised in Montana (16.5%) and the west (15.2%) 
are slightly less likely to fall in the lowest income category than 
are midwesterners (22.6%) and easterners (25.0%). Rut between 20 and 
25 percent of each origin category fall in the highest income category. 
Undoubtedly, the slight differences are a partial consequence of 
similarly slight differences in occupations. Midwesterners and 
easterners more frequently are employed in the private sector (25.7% 
and 31.8% respectively) and in the public sector (17.1% and 31.8% 
respectively) . Most Montanans and westerners are employed in 
agriculture. And 60.5% of construction jobs are held by Montanans. 
Distance, then, seems to be an important variable affecting how one 
participates in the occupational structure. 

Age of respondents ahows rather mixed relationships with where 
respondents were raised. Respondents in the two younger categories 
are more frequently natives, perhaps because of less opportunity to 
move that is associated with relative youth. Another possible 
explanation is that the area has not recently had the relative ability 
to draw in outsiders that it once had. This explanation has some 
credibility since the farther the distance of one's origins, the 



- 123 - 



more likely friends were to follow respondents and also settle in 
the area. Whatever the reasons, easterners are over represented 
among old-timers and midwesterners are over represented among 
persons 45 to 60 years old. 

The state and regions in which respondents grew up shows further 
relationships to the population density of the place where they grew 
up. Persons raised in Montana are far more likely to have heen 
raised on farms (75.3%) than are persons who grew up in other states. 
A malority (59.1%) of easterners, the other extreme, grew up in 
cities with over 10,000 inhabitants. Roughly one-half of the 
western and midwestern reared respondents grew up on farms (Q - .56). 
The number of years resided in the Decker-Birney Area is further 
associated with where respondents were raised ( <f - -.45). Only 2 
(5%) of westerners and 3 (13.2%) of easterners have lived in the area 
for more than fifty years. 89.6% of the old-timers are from Montana. 
Moreover, the greater the distance reared from Montana, the more likely 
respondents are to have lived in the study area for less than five years, 
Most of the persons in each category, representing different places 
where they were reared appear to have come directly to the area from 
those places. Still, between one-quarter and one-fifth have lived some 
other place in the interior between leaving their initial home and 
their current one. For example, 22.7% of the easterners and 25.7% of 
the midwesterners had lived in western states before moving to the 
Decker-Birney Area. Twenty percent of the westerners had lived 
elsewhere in Montana before moving to the study area. In spite of the 



- 124 - 



different times of arrival and distances traveled to the study area, 
relatively few persons from any origins intend to leave the area. 
Less than fifteen percent of any category say they plan to move away 
and, together, these respondents constitute only 8.8% of the total. 
This finding demonstrates the commitment to the area as does an even 
stronger commitment in terms of defining themselves as Montanans. 
While fewer persons raised outside Montana see themselves as Montanans 
(]£= .58), 88% of them feel they are now Montanans. 

Most persons in each category are now married. Even so, persons 
from the east and midwest are most likely to be single, widowed, 
divorced or separated. In the case of the single persons, these 
differences in marital status reflect the relative youth and recency 
of arrival among categories raised farthest away. And, in the case 
of the divorced and separated, the differences may reflect the stresses 
placed upon persons, especially women, who move from the outside. 
These comments are discussed in greater depth in the section on marital 
status. Such differences could be expected to affect the number of 
children of respondents from different geographic origins. So expected, 
the greater the distance to one's origins, the less likely respondents 
are to have children. 

And the greater the distance, the fewer are the vounger children, 
((" .26). This indicates that outsiders have yet to commit themselves 
by establishing a family to the same extent that native Montanans have. 
The older outsiders, though, seem to be about as prolific as do older 



- 125 



natives. The adult children of categories appear to be equally 
satisfied with the places where they currently reside. Still, many 
native Montarans (55.9%) report their children would be more likely 
to return to Montana if economic circumstances permitted it than is 
reported by 34% of the outsiders. This relationship is directly 
related to distance of origin from Montana ( => .26). Together, these 
summaries of family relationships indicate the relatively greater 
social control which has existed on natives. This control gradually 
appears to diminish as distance of origins increases. 

The relationship between where respondents currently live and 
where they grew up appears to differ for only one category. Sixty- 
two and nine tenths percent of midwesterners live in town whereas no 
other group has more than 35.2% living in town. The reason for this 
difference, especially between midwesterners and easterners (31. ft%) , is 
unclear. 

The place where respondents were raised appears to be less 
important than where they are when their satisfaction is considered. 
That is, most residents, no matter what their origins, agree that the 
Decker-Rirney Area is a desirable place to live though respondents 
from east of the area are a little happier ( Q ■ .21). A majority of 
all categories report that the area has everything that is necessary 
for a happy life and is the most desirable place they have lived. A 
majority or near majority of each category would prefer to live there 
with high taxes than elsewhere with low taxes. Most find the shopping 
facilities and roads to be of poor quality, although they feel the 
roads are adequate. Police protection is not regarded as of high 



- l?.fi - 



quality by most persons nor are medical facilities. 

A majority of each category feels an adult educational program 
would be useful and that job opportunities for young people are needed. 
Midwesterners , especially feel this way C() m .22). 

On the other hand, most agree that their schools, safetv, absence 
of traffic, living conditions make the place desirable. They strongly 
(83.8%) agree it is a good place to bring up children and has very 
helpful neighbors. Only 7.7% feel the area would be a better place to 
live if it had more minority persons; yet most do not feel the area 
is getting to crowded. (See Table 5D) 

When where respondents grew up is considered, the strong majority 
agreement occurs with regard to the need for recreation facilities, 
additional sex education in local schools, additional counselling 
services, facilities for senior citizens and public housing. They 
further are undecided whether the scenic resources of the area are being 
destroyed or whether local industrial interests are too powerful. 

General Planning 

As might be expected after reading the preceding section, the 
place where respondents grew up probably has little relationship to 
how persons feel regarding planning. How a person feels about 
stopping population growth has little to do with where thev grew up 
even though most commonly they (48.6%) feel that growth needs to be 
stopped. More specifically, 66. 4% agree the studv area has no 
population problem. Sixty and «ix tenths percent favor more paved 
roads in the area while 54.1% oppose establishing nearby wilderness 
areas. 

- 127 - 



I 



1 



TABLE - MEASURES OF SATISFACTION AND GENERAL NON-COAL 

PLANNING MEASURES ASSOCIATED WITH WHERE RESPONDENTS 
WERE RAISED FOR 259 DECKER-BIRNEY RESIDENTS, SUMMER 1974 



5 



Area and Personal Satisfaction 



General Non-Coal Area Planning 
Measures 



AREHAP 


-.15 


AREPOP 


.18 


AREDESIR 


-.05 


USPOP 


.04 


ARETAX 


.02 


FAVRDPAV 


-.09 


ARESCHL 


.06 


FAVWILD 


-.06 


ARESHOP 


-.10 


FAVCONDV 


-.09 


ARECONST 


-.04 


FAVPUBAC 


.22 


ARE SAFE 


.06 


FAV CLOSE 


.10 


ARETRAF 


.04 


AGSTPLAN 


.13 


AREPOL 


.06 


AGFDPLAN 


.10 


ARERECO 


.05 


AGINDCOM 


-.00 


ARERECI 


.18 


PROFS ELF 


.19 


AREMED 


.04 


PROFFRND 


.13 


ARESXED 


.07 


PROFPWR 


-.06 


AREADED 


-.10 


PROFAREA 


-.04 


AREHELTH 


.13 


FAVPLAN 


.09 


AREJOBOP 


.22 


OPPLAN 


-.13 


ARECOUNS 


.15 


SCIOPP 


.07 


ARESENR 


-.07 


SCI VOTE 


.20 


ARECHILD 


.05 


WHOPLAN 


.10 


AREMINLV 


.07 


OGHTPLAN 


.06 


AREHOUSP 


-.14 


PLANHARM 


.21 


AREHLP 


-.18 


STRPRCLM 


.02 


ARECROWD 


-.16 


AREAPLN 


-.01 


ARESCNDS 


.11 


PLNFIND 1 


.06 


AREINDPW 


-.07 


PLNFIND 2 


.07 


AREHWYCN 


.05 


PLNEARLY 


-.11 


AREPOPGW 


.06 


PLNRESLT 


.24 


ARELVCON 


-.01 


AGINDSUP 


-.21 


AGHELP 


-.13 


AGS CI 


.32 


AGS ATI S 


.21 


AGINFL 


.06 


SEEBTR 


-.12 


AGPEACE 


.33 


SEECHG 


-.29 


AGPOWR 


.03 


PWRMINE 


.13 


AGINFAV 


-.00 


SHFTRANC 


.06 


ENGYCRIS 


.22 






NOSTOP 


.11 






DEMVOTE 


.42 






LOCAL GOV 


-.17 






OLDTMRS 


.19 






EMPLYSGO 


-.18 






BADEMPLY 


.07 






LVNGCNDT 


.08 






CHILDITR 


.01 






CHILDLDR 


-.02 






EPLTRES 


.07 






FEELPART 


.22 



- 128 - 



I 

[ 



I 



Although few associations exceed <tf- .20), one exception is that 
midwesterners and easterners favor land developers being required 
to donate public land, a sentiment shared by 53.7% of the respondents 
(1$- -.22). They do not feel industrialization upsets communities 
as frequently as westerners and Montanans, though, the sentiment of 
an overwhelming porportion of respondents (82.6%) is that it is 
upsetting (tf- .21). Further, persons from east of Montana are more 
likely to maintain that science should deal with problems ($- -.32), 
that world peace can be achieved ((- .33), that plants violating 
pollution standards should be shut down ( Q- .42). 

As should be expected, a higher percentage (72.2%) of Montana 
natives have observed changes in the area than persons who *rew up 
elsewhere Q- .29), though they do not more frequently see the 
changes as for better or worse. Westerners feel less strongly that 
a sense of community is important (Q- -.22). 

Among the anticipated changes, westerners are less likely to 
feel that disrupting coal seams will cause springs to dry up, although 
76.1% of all respondents are in agreement ( - -.20). Though few 
respondents (13.9%) feel the energy crisis is serious, Montana natives 
are especially likely to feel it is serious ({ ~ .22). In snite of 
their negative anticipations regarding mining, easterners prefer strip 
mining alternatives because of economic reasons (ft - -.23). (See Table 5E) 

Knowledge of Planning 

For most measures of planning, differences do not exist between 
persons raised in different parts of the country. Among the exceptions 

- 129 - 



TABLE - MEASURES (GAMMA) OF COAL AND ENERGY DEVELOPMENT 
5E PLANNING SENTIMENTS AND PERSONAL SOCIAL AND 

ENVIRONMENTAL SENTIMENTS ASSOCIATED WITH WHERE 
RESPONDENTS WERE RAISED FOR 259 DECKER-BIRNEY 
RESIDENTS, SUMMER 1974 



Coal and Energy Development 
and Planning Sentiment Measures 



Personal, Social Environment 
and Coal Sentiment Measures 



AGCOAL 

AGSACR 

AGNATNED 

AGOWNED 

COALECON 

COMPCMP 

NATNEED 

ENOUGHMN 

OWEELECT 

DVLPINDS 

INDPLAN 

INDSTGTS 

AGFOOD 

PRVMINE 

RIVDAM 

MINGCOMP 

LANDCOND 

WTRCROPS 

SACRCOAL 

DRYUP 

MPCRECLM 

EMINTDMN 

MPCNOAFF 

STRPTEXPN 

PREFRSTP 

MORLEASE 

MORPOWR 

MORSTRIP 

MORRAILR 

MINGCOMP 

RECIVPAY 

AGPTENTL 

SULFUR 

7MINES 

POORTMBR 



-.17 
.01 
.03 
.19 
.12 

-.11 
.00 

-.06 

-.04 
.02 
.01 
.16 
.09 
.03 
.13 
.11 
.07 

-.13 
.13 
.20 
.00 
.11 

-.03 
.07 
.23 
.13 
.05 

-.02 
.06 

-.11 

-.07 

-.03 
.12 

-.11 
.06 



AGEMPLOY 


.07 


GUILTY RS 


-.03 


ISSUEDIS 


.13 


INTIMRES 


.12 


BESTMINE 


-.03 


MINRSRES 


.07 


SCLCOSTS 


.03 


PORLYINF 


.12 


TEACHTMP 


.14 


NEWCHRCH 


-.17 


DESRCONS 


-.07 


OBJMOVE 


.OR 


POPTIES 


-.07 


EVALPLNS 


.13 


COALTAX 


.18 


COCONCRN 


-.13 


BNFTRESD 


.01 


BNFTCITY 


.10 


COALEFCT 


-.03 


AGPOLIND 


.42 


DEEPMINE 


-.01 


BEACHDS 


.18 


MINESBTR 


-.07 


MNTANLAW 


-.00 


ME COAL 


.08 


ME RATE 


.08 



- 130 - 



to this general lack of differences is that persons raised east of 
Montana more frequently know of results from planning (ft - -.24). 
They also are more likely to vote for a plan (if- -.20) and are more 
favorable to professional planners than are westerners. However, 
most residents in each category feel local residents should design 
the plan. And, easterners are less likely to feel confused or 
threatened by a plan ( IT- -.21). Perhaps this lack of threat partially 
accounts for their stronger belief that each person should have one 
vote ( = -. 42) . 

Ownership Measures 

Since where persons were raised bears little relationship to 
their subsequent socio-demographic characteristics, variations in 
possessions should be expected to be weak. Still, a rather direct 
strong association ( Jf - .32) occurs between where respondents were 
raised and whether they own a four-wheel-drive vehicle. Similarly, 
the farther away respondents were raised, the less likely they are 
to own a tent (j"- .29) or a gun '(f- .33). Easterners, on the other 
hand, are more likely to own skis ( { - -.20). 

Although relatively weak in association with possessions compared 
to other independent variables, where persons were raised does show 
some differences. The importance of gun and four-wheel-drive owner- 
ship, especially, are similar to the rural, farm categories. ( See Table 5F) 

A rea Attraction Measures 

So few differences occur between respondents as a consequence of 



- 131 



TABLE - PERSONAL ACQUAINTANCE OWNERSHIP AND AREA ATTRACTION 
5F MEASURES ASSOCIATED WITH WHERE RESPONDENTS WERE 

RAISED FOR 259 DECKER-BIRNEY RESIDENTS, SUMMER 1974 



Personal Acquaintance 
Measures 



Ownership Measures 



KNOCOP 

KNOTCHR 

KNOCROC 

KNOELECT 

KNOPHYS 

KNOCAFE 

KNOMINST 

KNOHRDWR 

KNOSPRT 

KNOFIRE 

KNOAUTO 

KNOSERV 

KNOPLUMB 

KNONRS 

KNOMOTEL 

KNOBNKR 



39 
13 
30 
15 
,19 
.38 
.33 
.33 
.21 
.15 
.30 
.22 
.25 
.13 
.33 
.19 



OWN4WHL 


-.32 


OWNCYCL 


.04 


OWNSNMB 


-.09 


OWNPWRBT 


.03 


OWNCMPR 


.06 


OWNTENT 


-.29 


OWNCCSKI 


-.07 


OWNSKI 


.20 


OWNWSKI 


.14 


OWNFISH 


-.14 


OWNBOW 


.01 


OWNPSTL 


-.11 


OWNGUN 


-.33 


OWNMOVIE 


-.10 


OWNCAM 


.17 


OWNHORS 


-.18 



Area Attraction 


Measures 




DECBEAUT 


.10 


DECCONV 


-.12 


DECHLTH 


-.01 


DECCRIM 


-.08 


DECPOLL 


.04 


DECFAM 


-.41 


DECCOST 


.14 


DECINHRT 


-.34 


DECFRND 


-.13 


DECREC 


.20 


DECCLTM 


.22 


DECBUSNS 


-.12 


DECROOTS 


-.30 


DECLIFE 


.03 



- 132 - 



where they were raised that their motives for remaining in the Decker- 
Bimey Area should he expected and were found to he quite similar. One 
important difference is that native Montanans report more frequently 
that they remain because of the proximity to relatives ( if- .41). The 
attachment of natives to their families demonstrates the importance 
family ties exert within the area. Closely associated with these ties 
is inheritance, which also is more frequently mentioned by native 
Montanans (5 - .34), though it is not important for the malority (52.82) 
of them. They express the importance of their deep social roots (0" .30). 
Easterners, on the other hand, have been drawn to the area for other 
reasons, the most important of which are access to recreation ( <f- -.20) 
and climate (0 " -.22). 

The relative attraction of the social environment to the physical 
environment for natives and outsiders is demonstrated by these differences. 

Personal Acceptance Measures 

One set of measures which clearly differentiates between locals 
and outsiders is knowledge of local persons in various occupations. 
Greater familiarity is consistently mentioned by native Montanans, 
although most persons know others in most occupational categories. 
Respondents who were raised in the area are most likely to know law 
officers (f- .39), grocers ( (f - .30), cafe owners if- .38), ministers 
( C- .33), hardware store operators (($"- .33), sporting goods store 
owners (f- .20), car dealers or mechanics ( f" .30), service station 
operators (if- .22), plumbers ( f- .25) and motel operators (fl - .33). 



- 133 - 



From the preceding presentation of the data it should he clear 
that the importance of where respondents were raised has little to 
do with how they act or what they believe. Although outsiders have 
been drawn and choose to remain in the study area for slightly 
different reasons, once they arrive they seem to be divided in their 
feelings regarding the area and its future in about the same way 
that natives are divided. The author suspects that if the effects 
of family and inheritance attachments were removed, some locally 
raised persons would leave the area. This exodus probably would make 
the responses of those remaining, whether locally raised or outsiders, 
to be practically indistinguishable. 

From the data collected for this analysis, it is difficult to 
say why such similarity between locally raised and outside raised 
respondents persists. Perhaps persons raised outside anticipate 
representative activities and sentiments even before they arrive. 
That is, perhaps a very select and non-representative variety of 
outsider chooses to reside in the study area. Or perhaos outsiders 
take on similar characteristics to locals after they arrive in the 
area. Whatever the reason, it should be clear that outsiders can 
not be classified as pro-environmental or pro-development. Such an 
erroneous classification, if it is used, is likely to be based upon 
ignorance rather than upon fact. 



134 - 



Where Respondents Currently Reside 

During the process of interviewing, one of the most evident 
differences among respondents was where they lived, in the rural area 
or in Ashland. The most obvious differences socio-demographic occupa- 
tional. Rural dwellers were most likely to be ranchers (83.3%), where- 
as townspeople were almost equally divided among the private sector 
(33.7%), operators and construction (32.7%), and the public sector 
(28.6%), ((jf- .35). Differences also were evident in sex; 40% of 
town respondents were men, whereas 41% of rural respondents were 
women (,' ■ -. 37) . 

Among recent arrivals (Q ■ .53), younger persons also seemed more 
frequent in town than in the country. The data indicate 26.8% of town 
dwellers and 15.7% of rural dwellers were in the youngest age group 
(17 to 29). In the country 28.3% of the respondents were over sixty 
years old, compared to 15.5% in town (§ - .24). 

Partiallv as a result of maleness and older average age, rural 
respondents were more likely to be the head of a household than were 
town respondents. 

Upon being interviewed in town and in the country, respondents 
continually commented on the difference between the country and Ashland. 
That is, respondents acknowledged differences even before the interviewers 
had become aware of the importance of the town-country distinction. The 
backgrounds of each type of respondent began to emerge as somewhat 
different. Both were predominantly from Montana, although 22.4% of 



- 135 - 



townspeople were originally from the midwest in contrast to only 8.17 
of rural dwellers. In fact, 57.7% of rural dwellers were natives to the 
area compared to only 20% of townspeople. Moreover, 73.3% of rural 
dwellers had been raised on a farm in contrast to 44.9% in Ashland, 
(') - -.46). Considerably more of rural dwellers (85.0%) had lived in 
Montana or another western state in comparison to 69.1% of townspeople. 
Rural dwellers (80. 7%) also expressed le98 interest in moving from the 
area than did townspeople (71.4%; ($ = .27). Over one-fourth (27.8%) 
of the rural dwellers reported friends had moved to the area to loin 
them compared to 15.5% of townspeople. 

A strong malority (93.9% and 94.4%, respectively) of town and 
country respondents regarded themselves as Montanans. 

In spite of considerable attachment to the Decker-Birnev Area 
townspeople, as a category, were relatively less embedded than were 
rural persons. Nearly every measure of attachment - amount of time 
lived in the area, being a native of the area, having rural and Montana 
heritage, plans against moving - indicated rural dwellers tend to have 
greater attachment and more permanent involvement than do townspeople. 
Certainly, Ashland is among the most remote type of town envisioned 
by most urban dwellers. Still, residents of Ashland in many ways are 
different in how they see themselves, are seen by rural residents. 
Townspeople, however attached to their town, are probably less threat- 
ened bv social change than are country dwellers, especially in an area 
so remote as the Decker-Birney Area. After all, as was repeatedly 
pointed out by ranchers, there are many towns to live in and most persons 



- 136 - 



choose to live in them. But, they say there are relatively few good 
undeveloped ranch areas left and the Decker-Birney Area is one of them. 
They conveyed a sense of impending loss which was less frequent among 
townspoeple. These impressions, reflecting the inclusive nature of 
involvement of rural dwellers with the area, are continually demon- 
strated through their responses. 

All residents of the study area expressed satisfaction with the 
area hut the satisfaction was more nearly total among rural dwellers. 
Ninety and seven tenths percent of rural respondents felt that the area 
had everything necessary for a happy life, compared a high 72.4% of 
townspeople ( \=* .58). Nearly three-quarters of the rural dwellers 
felt that the area was the most desirable one in which thev have lived 
(^= .AS). This desirability, stems in part from how they perceive 
services. Rural dwellers felt that shopping facilities were adequate 
(Y= .51), road maintenance was good ( (j = .23) and additional construction 
was unnecessary (0- .53). They actually opposed more paved roads (.797). 
Their life was safe ( |f a .51), traffic presented no problem ( jf - .20), 
living conditions were desirable (ft= .55), police protections was of high 
qualitv ( Q » .32), indoor ( - .86) and outdoor (0- .76) recreation 
facilities were adequate. And 156 of 161 rural (96.77) respondents felt 
it was a good place to bring up children ( j ■ .89) and neighbors were 
better here than elswhere ( ■ .73). Dwellers saw a need for more 
health progress (u- .89), medical service in the area as poor ((f- .81), 
adult education (q- .75), sex education in schools as unnecessary 
(T- -39). Less than half (.46% of rural dwellers felt 
that more ^obs were necessary for the area young people, 



- 137 - 



compared to over three-fourths (76.5%) of townspeople (Q- .55). Rural 
people also were more frequently opposed to establishing additional 
counselling services (6- .78), senior citizen facilities (j- .84), 
and public housing (}f - .90). At the same time they (67.1%) also 
strongly opposed establishing wilderness areas near the area (jj = .56) 
or requiring builders to donate land for public use (() - .63). 

Rural dwellers were less likely to feel world power rests in the 
hands of a few people ( - .30). Fewer of them were fatalistic about 
the position in the world. For example, fewer of them felt helpless 
in the world today ( - .31) and most (88.8%) felt satisfied with 
life ( I =• .46). 

Rural dwellers also were more fearful that the area will suffer 
from change. They more frequently felt that even with planning, nop- 

ulation increase will negatively effect the area ( ' - .52). Rural 

r 
dwellers more frequently opposed more minority persons ( (j ■ .45). 

y 

They felt that population growth needs to be stooped soon ( \ - .27) 
even though they saw current population problem less problematic 
than townspeople ( (j ■ . 38) . 

Rural residents were less likely to see changes in the area as 
improvements (J - -.29. In congruence with their opposition to change, 
rural dwellers also expressed suspicion of potential agents of change. 
They more frequently felt that industrial interests in the area were 
too powerful ( • .46) and would like a moratorium to be placed on 
leasing of state and federal coal lands (Q ■ .25). They also more 



- 138 - 



TABLE - MEASURES OF SATISFACTION AND GENERAL NON-COAL PLANNING 
5G MEASURES ASSOCIATED WITH WHERE RESPONDENTS CURRENTLY 

RESIDE FOR 259 DECKER-BIRNEY RESIDENTS, SUMMER 1974 



Area and Personal Satisfaction 
Measures 



General Non-Coal Area Planning 
Measures 



AREHAP 


.58 


AREPOP 


.53 


AREDESIR 


.45 


USPOP 


.27 


ARETAX 


-.00 


FAXRDPAV 


-.79 


ARESCHL 


.17 


FAVWILD 


.56 


ARESHOP 


.51 


FAVCONDV 


-.16 


ARE CONST 


.23 


FAVPUBAC 


-.63 


ARE SAFE 


.51 


FAVCLOSE 


.16 


ARETRAF 


-.20 


AGSTPLAN 


.14 


AREPOL 


.32 


AGFDPLAN 


.47 


ARE RE CO 


-.75 


AGINDCOM 


.14 


ARE RE CI 


-.86 


PROFS ELF 


-.49 


AREMED 


.81 


PROFFRND 


-.34 


ARESXED 


.39 


PROFPWR 


.10 


AREADED 


.75 


PROFAREA 


-.18 


AREHELTH 


-.89 


FAVPLAN 


-.23 


AREJOBOP 


.55 


OP PLAN 


.35 


ARECOUNS 


-.78 


SCIOPP 


-.33 


ARESENR 


.84 


SCI VOTE 


-.48 


ARE CHILD 


.89 


WHOPLAN 


-.10 


AREMINLV 


-.45 


OGHTPLAN 


.28 


AREHOUSP 


.90 


PLANHARM 


-.45 


AREHLP 


-.73 


STRPRCLM 


.29 


ARE CROWD 


.16 


AREAPLN 


.06 


ARESCNDS 


-.06 


PLNFIND 1 


.10 


AREINDPW 


.43 


PLNFIND 2 


.37 


AREHWYCN 


.53 


PLNEARLY 


.11 


AREPOPGW 


.38 


PLNRESLT 


-.00 


ARELVCON 


-.55 


AGINDSUP 


.53 


AGHELP 


-.31 


AGSCI 


-.03 


AGS AT IS 


.46 


AGINFL 


.17 


SEEBTR 


-.29 


AGPEACE 


-.14 


SEECHG 


.05 


AGPOWR 


.30 


PWRMINE 


.24 


AGINFAV 


-.03 


SHFTRANC 


-.50 


ENGYCRIS 


-.12 






NOSTOP 


.03 






DEMVOTE 


-.23 






LOCALGOV 


.06 






OLDTMRS 


-.31 






EMPLYSGO 


.13 






BADEMPLY 


.10 






LVNGCNDT 


.08 






CHILDITR 


-.19 






CHILDLDR 


-.58 






EPLTRES 


.16 






FEELPART 


-.46 



- 139 - 



strongly favored a moratorium on power plants ( 5 = .30), new strip 
mines ( (f- .35) and transmission lines ( { - .38). They felt that 
industrialization within the area will upset the community (Q - .53). 
For example, over one-half of the rural respondents have noticed a 
shift in power from ranchers to the coal industry (jf ■ .24). Towns- 
people, on the other hand, saw a shift in power from themselves to 
ranchers (^ = . 50) 

Despite their opposition to development, rural dwellers also 
opposed potential advice from federal planners ($ - -.92). Moreover, 
they more strongly (67.7%) supported the right of land owners to develop 
resources if they wish (Q - .37). They (67.8%) generally did not favor 
professional planners in the area ( (J ■ -.49) and they more frequently 

felt their friends (> - -.34) feel the same way. v tore of them (22.4%) 

u 

would sign a petition opposing a comprehensive plan, though many more 
respondents, rural and town alike, are uncertain how they would respond 
( J= -.33). Niaetv-one and th*ee tenths percent of rural dwellers felt 
that the people living in the study area need a strong voice (fc-34) (Table 

Nearly 70 percent of rural residents felt that local residents 
should decide the adequacy of any plan and onlv 11.8% felt that state 
of federal governments should decide (A ■ .28). Personal benefit does 
not seem to be the key factor involved in feeling toward planning. In 
fact, relatively few rural residents (26.7%) felt that they would be 
harmed by a comprehensive plan. 

Rural dwellers resisted coal development from a wide variety of 



- 140 - 



perspectives. They did not feel Montana coal should be mined merely 
because the federal government says it is necessary to meet energy 
needs (0 = .27). While most respondents (71. 4%) felt that the nation 
needs Montana coal, rural dwellers disagreed that it should be developed 
( ' «■ .41). Most rural dwellers feared that development will mean dammed 
rivers ((J - .24) and most felt that there are already enough strip mines 
in Montana ( .'] = .23). They most heavily favored no more mining and 
rarely favored local generating plants (| a .30). Only a few (6.8%) 
felt an obligation to generate electricity ( ■ .48) or to develop more 
industry for Montana (0 " .55). 

Some of the opposition to coal development expressed by rural 
persons may rest with a greater apprehension regarding outsiders. More 
of them felt that miners do not adapt like the local residents (jj ■ .23). 
They (76.4%) felt, even more frequently than townspeople (67.3%) that 
clean air can not be sacrificed in order to create industrial 1obs. 
They more frequently reported that construction workers have different 
values from local residents ( (J ■ .37). Moreover, rural dwellers were 
less likely to want to move in spite of opposition to coal ( Q ■ .34) 
even though they expected coal development and population influx to 
affect their family ties ( j) ■ .50) and area residents ((/ ■ .49). In 
fact, a majority, especially strong among rural dwellers (83.2%), 
agreed that development will benefit outsiders more than themselves 
ifi~ -48). 

Most persons in the study area were concerned with coal development 
and planning for their futures. Rural persons were more likely to have 



- 141 - 



learned of planning efforts from personal contacts or written media 
(77.3%) while tonwspeople more frequently learned through radio, 
television or some other source (63.2%). Most respondetns, but es- 
pecially rural dwellers (77.0%) felt that outsiders (to the study 
area) are poorly informed about coal development ( #"=• -22), although 
a minority of residents, especially townspeople, had not heard that 
as many as seven generating plants had been proposed for the area (0=.54) 

In spite of considerable opposition to planning bv state and 
federal representatives, local residents do have guidelines they would 
like to use for the future. Most (75%) respondents felt that Montana 
agricultural experts should decide when reclamation has been achieved. 
Though 14.4% of rural dwellers would prefer land restored to original 
form and productivity, they (90.7%) felt that decisions regarding 
development should be based on "people reasons" rather than economic 
ones (y'- .38). However, they (73.9%) agreed that current coal company 
policies are dictated more by law than by feelings for people ( }f= -.22). 
Although most favored equal voting abilities for everyone, a few (fi.R") 
disagreed (ft = .23). They more frequently agreed that social costs 
must be considered for any development (ft - .31) and that neonle like 
themselves should influence the coal decisions (0 - .52). Most felt 
that strip mining is incompatible with good land use practice (Jf ■ -.37). 
Sixty-seven and one tenth percent feared that crop water will be lost 
and springs will dry up (jf=" .59) if mining occurs ( <T= -33). They 
(70.2%) felt that area residents will not be better off if strip 
mining occurs Ci - .5^). 



- 142 - 



They strongly disagreed that strip mines will be the best thing for 
Montana ( (f =■ .45). They (87%) saw the agricultural productivity of 
Decker-Birney land as too high to exchange for strip mining ( o ■ -67) 
even though they recognized the low sulphur content of the coal 
( (f » .20). They also strongly disagreed (77.6%) that our timber is 
so poor as to warrant strip mining (q - .33). (See Table 5H) 

Ownership Measures 

Townspeople and rural dwellers are clearly differentiated bv 
some possessions. Rural residents are far more likely to own a four- 
wheel-drive vehicle (I - .56), a hand gun (0= .34), a gun (0 - .64) 
and a horse (\) - .92). They are slightly more likely to own skis (0= .22). 

Townspeople, on the other hand, are more likely to own items which 
are specifically reflective of recreational uses. Townspeople are more 
likely to own water skis (Q» -.44), a power boat (0 - -.29), cross country 
skis ( Vj = -. 27) , a movie camera ( Q =» -. 23) . 

The strongest differences are indicative of rural ranch life versus 
town life. Modern rural agricultural life almost demands a horse and a 
four-wheel-drive vehicle. Guns, however necessary, also are an essential 
item for most (89.9%) rural dwellers. 

The reasons for living in the study area provided by respondents 
vary considerably between rural dwellers and townspeople. Rural 
dwellers are far more likely to see their location as convenient for 
their work (' = .41). They also are more attracted to the area for 
reasons of health (lf m .37), absence of crime (Q ■ -60), freedom from 



- 143 - 



TABLE - MEASURES (GAMMA) OF COAL AND ENERGY DEVELOPMENT 
5H PLANNING SENTIMENTS AND PERSONAL SOCIAL AND 

ENVIRONMENTAL SENTIMENTS ASSOCIATED WITH WHERE 
RESPONDENTS CURRENTLY RESIDE FOR 259 DECKER-BIRNEY 
RESIDENTS, SUMMER 19 74 



Coal and Energy Development and 
Planning Sentiment Measures 



Personal, Social Environment 
and Coal Sentiment Measures 



AG COAL 


-.27 


AG EMPLOY 


.01 


AGSACR 


.23 


GUILTYRS 


.04 


AGNATNED 


.07 


ISSUEDIS 


-.03 


AGOWNED 


.37 


INTIMRES 


.06 


CO ALE CON 


-.38 


BESTMINE 


-.45 


COMPCMP 


.22 


MINRSRES 


-.23 


NATNEED 


-.41 


SCLCOSTS 


.31 


ENOUGHMN 


.22 


PORLYINF 


-.22 


OWEELECT 


-.48 


TEACHTMP 


-.OR 


DVLPINDS 


-.55 


NEWCHRCH 


-.11 


INDPLAN 


-.18 


DESRCONS 


-.37 


INDSTGTS 


.08 


OBJMOVE 


-.34 


AGFOOD 


.18 


POPTIES 


.50 


PRVMINF. 


.07 


EVALPLNS 


-.16 


RIVDAM 


.24 


COALTAX 


.05 


MINGCOMP 


-.37 


COCONCRN 


.14 


LANDCOND 


-.09 


BNFTRESD 


.44 


WTR CROPS 


-.34 


BNFTCITY 


-.48 


SACRCOAL 


.17 


COALEFCT 


.62 


DRYUP 


.59 


AGPOLIND 


.03 


MPCRECLM 


.47 


DEEPMINE 


-.01 


EMINTDMN 


.15 


BEACHDS 


.13 


MPCNOAFF 


-.55 


MINES BTR 


-.52 


STRPTEXPN 


-.09 


MNTANLAW 


-.14 


PREFRSTP 


-.07 


ME COAL 


.52 


MORLEASE 


.24 


MERATE 


.15 


MORPOWR 


.30 






MORSTRIP 


.35 






MORRAILR 


.38 






MINGCOMP 


.37 






RE CI VP AY 


-.08 






AGPTENTL 


-.67 






SULFUR 


.20 






7MINES 


.54 






POORTMBR 


-.33 







- 144 - 



pollution ( (' - .51), low costs of living (J- .32), friends in area 
( Q - .37), climate ( ft = .30) and, most strongly, inheritance (f- .70), 
business reasons (^- .70), deep social roots (0 - .58) and way of 
life (£- .67). 

Rural dwellers, then, seem to be more attracted to and favorable 
toward a variety of factors in the study area ranging from attraction 
to the environmental characteristics through deep immersion in the 
social structure. Again, social control, as it relates to involvement 
in the area, is clearly demonstrated. 

Townspeople are more likely to know a grocer ($""- -.88), an 
electrician (6" - -.40), a cafe owner (ft"- -.71), a minister (Q = -.42), 
a hardware store owner ((f- -.56), a fireman (0 ■ -.74), an automobile 
dealer ( Q - -.30), a service station operator (Q = -.81, a nurse 
(Q= -.22), a motel operator (Q - .50), a banker ( jf - -.69). 

Knowledge of persons in differing occupations clearly demonstrates 
the environments in which respondents live. Townspeople, especially in 
a small town like Ashland, are likely to know every merchant and service 
person in town. Even though a majority of rural dwellers know a person 
in each occupation, as a category they know relatively fewer than do 
town dwellers. The sole exception is knowing a physician, a profession 
which does not exist in Ashland. Rural persons more frequentlv know a 
physician ((J - .55). (See Table 51) 



- 145 



TABLE - PERSONAL ACQUAINTANCE OWNERSHIP AND AREA ATTRACTION 
51 MEASURES ASSOCIATED WITH WHERE RESPONDENTS CURRENTLY 

RESIDE FOR 259 DECKER-BIRNEY RESIDENTS, SUMMER 1974 



Personal 


Acquaintance 


Ownership 


Measures 


Area Attrac 


tion 


Measures 








Measures 




KNOCOP 


.03 


OWN4WHL 


.56 


DECBEAUT 


.16 


KNOTCHR 


.12 


OWNCYCL 


.05 


DECCONV 


.11 


KNOGROC 


.88 


OWNSNMB 


.12 


DECHLTH 


.37 


KNO ELECT 


-.40 


OWNPWRBT 


-.24 


DECCRIM 


.60 


KNOPHYS 


.56 


OWNCMPR 


.17 


DECPOLL 


.51 


KNOCAFE 


-.71 


OWNTENT 


.14 


DECFAM 


.1^ 


KNOMINST 


-.42 


OWNCCSKI 


-.26 


DECCOST 


-.32 


KNOHRDWR 


-.56 


OWNSKI 


.20 


DECINHRT 


. 70 


KNOSPRT 


-.14 


OWNWSKI 


-.44 


DECFRND 


. 37 


KNO FIRE 


-.74 


OWNFISH 


.10 


DECREC 


-.14 


KNO AUTO 


-.30 


OWNBOW 


-.10 


DECCLIM 


. 30 


KNOSERV 


-.81 


OWNPSTL 


.34 


DECBUSNS 


. 70 


KNOPLUMB 


-.06 


OWNGUN 


.64 


DECROOTS 


.58 


KNONRS 


-.22 


OWNMOVIE 


-.23 


DECLIFE 


.67 


KNOMOTEL 


-.50 


OWN CAM 


.06 






KNOBNKR 


-.69 


OWNHORS 


.92 







- 146 - 



Summary 

On the basis of the forgoing data analysis it is evident that 
where persons live and the amount of time they have lived in the 
study area are strongly associated with their satisfaction, feelings 
toward development and feelings regarding planning. Although some 
of the strength of association undoubtedly derives by the comnound- 
ing effects of differences in occupation and income, the author is 
certain that much of the strength is due to valid and reliable effects 
of the distributional variable upon the behavior of residents in the 
study area. These measures deserve considerably more analysis. 



- 147 



Chapter 6 
SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS 

Introduction 

Socio-economic status constitutes one of the most important 
variables used by sociologists. Socio-economic status is attached to 
the relative opportunities enjoyed by participants within the social 
structure. (Lundberg. et . al. , 1973) Education, occupation and income 
levels are generally considered to be the primary indicators of opportun- 
ities in the United States and, as such, are treated as the malor 
variables in this chapter. 

The reasons for the ascendance of socio-economic status as an 
important variable in sociology are both empirical and theoretical. 
Socio-economic status has repeatedly shown important relationships to 
a vast array of other variables. Equally important, socio-economic 
status has proven to be valuable for explaining how behavior occurs. 
In this respect, the author maintains that socio-economic status also 
should be an important explanatory variable in the Decker-Birney Area. 
However, as the following results will indicate, the importance of the 
indicators varies considerably. It is quite likely that still another 
indicator of socio-economic status would have been a more reliable 
measure than are any of the three measures reported. Land ownership, 
as one variety of possession related to status in an agricultural 
area might be such a variable. Unfortunately, data were not collected 
on this potentially important measure. 



- 148 - 



Continuing with the theorectical perspective based upon social 
control, hypotheses are based upon the relative effect each variable 
has upon social control, which in turn effects the responses of 
respondents. Persons of higher or more conventional occupational, 
educational and income status were expected to be more satisfied 
with the area, more opposed to planning and more opposed to most 
development. As will become evident, these relationships generally 
hold although wide variation in responses also are evident. 

Education 

Education is considered by many social scientists as the most 
important determinant of social status in modern societies. (Matras, 
1975) Generally, the higher the educational level, the higher the 
income, the greater prestige of income and living area. Although 
educational achievement and socio-economic status of parents strongly 
influence the educational achievement of their children, education 
provides a medium through which opportunities may become available to 
members of all socio-economic groups, however disproportionate their 
educational achievement may be. Exceptions to this general relationship 
do occur, however, and the Decker-Birney Area is the location of such 
an exception. Only a weak association occurs between family income 
and education of head of household although a strong ( (5 ■ .35) exists 
between occupational characteristics and education. Nearly ninety 
percent of the college educated respondents are in agriculture or the 
public sector. More than one half of the public sector employees have 



- 149 - 



a college education, whereas high school graduation is the modal 
educational achievement for all other occupational categories. 

High educational attainment neither typifies residents of the study 
area nor is strongly associated with income categories. Still, whether 
education may be an important variable in conlunction with feelings 
regarding planning and development remains an important consideration 
which will be analyzed in this section. Exclusive of its effects upon 
the position of respondents in the socio-economic svstem, education may 
have independent importance affecting how respondents feel regarding 
this area. Although formal educational achievement may serve to sensi- 
tize and familiarize people to issues and information, it is especially 
possible that in a rural area other factors more directly associated 
with social control may be more important. 

Because of these unusual and competing relationships there is 
difficulty in interpreting exactly how education relates to social 
control. Generally, it may be anticipated that education will reflect 
the effects of social control for two reasons. First, education is 
weakly but consistently associated with other socio-demographic measures, 
That is, education may have some slight predictive value independent 
of relationships with other independent variables. Second, and more 
probably, the importance of education is confounded by its relation- 
ships to other more powerfully predictive independent variables. 

The modal educational achievement for respondents (47. 2%) is 
graduation f rom high school. Slightly over one third (3.3.9%) of 
respondents have less than high school education while the remaining 



- 150 - 



18.1% have attended and/or graduated from college. No strong 
associations in educational achievement appear to occur for sex or 
for what states respondents grew up. Where respondents had lived 
prior to coming to the area, whether friends had loined them, whether 
thev feel they are Montanans, none of these variables appear to be 
significant. Differences in educational achievement which do exist 
probably are primarily manifestations of age ((f- -.38), since age 
is inversely related to educational attainment, a relationship that 
demonstrates the trend toward higher educational achievement through 
successive cohorts. (Perry and Perry, 1973) For example, whereas 69.87 
of persons over 45 have not graduated from high school only 10.5% of 
persons under 30 have not done so. And 69.6% of the college graduates 
are under 45 years old. Consequently, years lived in the study area 
( - -.39), marital status (0 - -.21), age of children ($- .31) and 
where their children live ({j~- -26) are each associated with educational 
achievement. 

The size of place in which respondents were raised also is associated 
with educational achievement. Roughly three-quarters of respondents who 
did not graduate from high school were raised on farma. Persons raised 
on farms constitute forty percent of the category who did not graduate 
from high school. On the other hand, 39% of the college graduates grew 
up in towns with more populations of more than 10,000 (\ - .35). The 
difference in attachment to the area is shown by strong but decreasing 
intentions to remain in the area as educational achievement increases 
( l - .20). Still, if college graduates are slightly more likely to plan 

- 151 - 



to leave, they also were more likely to visit the intended area before 
moving there (fi- .21). 

Satisfaction 

Although a strong majority of respondents appear to be satisfied 
with their lives in the Decker-Birney Area as well as with the area 
itself, their educational level appears to affect this satisfaction 
relatively little. Even though higher education is stronglv associated 
with desirable living conditions ( 6 - .39), conditions, as such, do not 
seem to reflect satisfaction except for a few items. For example, the 
lower the family income, the more respondents would like new outdoor 
recreation facilities (^ - .20) and the less they feel a local popula- 
tion problem exists ( Q ■ .40), The greater the educational achievement, 
the more respondents would like additional sex education in the schools 
(if- .30) and job opportunities in the area (fl- -.21). (See Table 6A) 

Planning 

Education differentiates slightly more on questions regarding 
development and planning than upon satisfaction with the area. The 
more educated respondents, for example, favor even more strongly than 
the 55.8% of non-high school graduates the idea that an area wide 
moratorium should be imposed on leasing of federal and state coal lands 
((j"- .20), building of power plants (T- .28), new strip mines (Q - .24) 
and transmission lines ( X- .25). Education is also positively associa- 
ted with feelings that industrialization would upset the community 
(6- -20). 

- 152 - 



TABLE - MEASURES OF SATISFACTION AND GENERAL NON-COAL 
6A PLANNING MEASURES ASSOCIATED WITH EDUCATION 

FOR 259 DECKER-BIRNEY RESIDENTS, SUMMER 1974 



Area and Personal Satisfaction 
Measures 



General Non-Coal Area Planning 
Measures 



AREHAP 


-.07 


AREPOP 


.09 


AREDESIR 


-.19 


US POP 


-.16 


ARETAX 


.00 


FAVRDPAV 


.01 


ARESCHL 


-.05 


FAVWILD 


-.11 


ARESHOP 


-.06 


FAVCONDV 


-.04 


ARECONST 


-.17 


FAVPUBAC 


.14 


ARESAFE 


-.06 


FAVCLOSE 


.02 


ARETRAF 


-.11 


AGSTPLAN 


.30 


AREPOL 


.02 


AGFDPLAN 


.36 


ARERECO 


-.20 


AGINDCOM 


-.12 


ARERECI 


.15 


PROFSELF 


.19 


AREMED 


-.05 


PROFFRND 


.06 


ARESXED 


.30 


PROFPWR 


-.OR 


AREADED 


-.06 


PROF AREA 


.06 


AREHELTH 


-.03 


FAVPLAN 


.12 


AREJOBOP 


.21 


OPPLAN 


-.15 


ARECOUNS 


.08 


SCIOPP 


.13 


ARESENR 


-.16 


SCIVOTE 


.21 


ARECHILD 


.09 


WHOPLAN 


.19 


AREMINLV 


-.05 


OGHTPLAN 


-.17 


AREHOUSP 


.03 


PLANHARM 


.05 


AREHLP 


-.13 


STRPRCLM 


-.09 


ARE CROWD 


-.02 


AREAPLN 


.18 


ARESCNDS 


.13 


PLNFIND 1 


.15 


AREINDPW 


.14 


PLNFIND 2 


.47 


AREHWYCN 


.00 


PLNEARLY 


.17 


AREPOPGW 


.40 


PLNRESLT 


.40 


ARELVCON 


-. 39 


AGINDSUP 


.20 


AGHELP 


-.45 


AGS CI 


.15 


AG SAT IS 


-.16 


AGINFL 


-.29 


SEEBTR 


-.11 


AGPEACE 


-.16 


SEECHG 


-.02 


AGPOWR 


.37 


PWRMINE 


-.07 


AGINFAV 


-.32 


SHFTRANC 


-.05 


ENGYCRIS 


-.00 






NOSTOP 


.32 






DEMVOTE 


-.17 






LOCALGOV 


-.15 






OLDTMRS 


-.05 






EMPLYSGO 


-.20 






BADEMPLY 


.03 






LVNGCNDT 


.31 






CHILDITR 


.05 






CHILDLDR 


-.14 






EPLTRES 


.11 






FEELPART 


.18 



- 153 - 



Education might be a somewhat important factor in predicting how 
respondents would prefer planning to occur. Education is directly 
related to favoring the use of state (X- .30) and federal planners 
( ■ .36) in the development of Montana. Similarly, educated persons 
more frequently feel information on mining is available (q ■ .32) and 
have knowledge of planning results (Q - .40). More frequently thev 
also feel that outsiders are informed (Q" .20). Perhaps this helps 
to account for the propensity of educated persons to anticipate 
voting in favor of a plan (q - .21). 

More generally, educational attainment seems to be associated with 
a more positive view toward planning. Educated persons, for example, 
are more likely to feel they can help stop inflation Cf m .29) and less 
likely to feel the world is run by a privileged few (#"- -.37). They 
are far less likely to feel hopeless in the world today ("fl"- .45) and 
far less likelv to feel "you can't stop progress" ("$"- .32). 

Level of education seems to affect how respondents perceive motives 
and restrictions associated with development. More educated respondents 
are less likely to feel Montana coal should be developed merely to meet 
the energy needs outlined by the federal administration ($"- .21). They 
more frequently feel they have the right to interfere with development 
even if national energy needs are involved (^f- .23). They less frequent- 
ly feel an obligation to develop Montana ( (f- -.22), They feel decisions 
should be based on broader information than economics (jf m .58) and that 
persons like themselves should help influence general policy (#"" .26) 



154 - 



as well as rate of development ($" -30). 

Level of education seems to be only weakly associated with 
different interpretations of what coal development might lead to in 
the study area. More educated persons, for example, are more likely 
to feel strip mining would cause springs to dry up ($"» .24). 

While a majority of all educational categories feel strip mining 
would not be the best thing for eastern Montana, the lower the 
educational level, the more desirable mining is interpreted (Q - -.25). 
And, conversely, the less favorable they are to the management of the 
local national forest (#"- -.20). (See Table 6B) 

Ownership Me as vires 

Although a few fairly strong differences exist with regard to 
ownership by persons of differing educational achievement, it is 
suspected that such differences reflect confounding differences in 
age more than education. Motorcycle ownership, for example, although 
infrequent (15.2?) among college graduates, is even less frequent 
(A. 7%) among persons with less than high school education ( = .40). 
Similarly, the greater the educational achievement, the more the 
likelihood of power boats ( - .24), tents (fr- .27), cross country 
skis (if- .54), skis (fl~- .34), bows ( }f- .40) and 15mm cameras (Q- .44) 
The onlv item more frequently reported bv less educated persons is a 

?un Cf- -.31). 

Ownership indicates, therefore, that education is rather strongly 
associated with participation with the environment, although age may 
be as important for the ownership of many items as is education. Still, 

- 155 - 



TABLE - MEASURES (GAMMA) OF COAL AND ENERGY DEVELOPMENT 
6B PLANNING SENTIMENTS AND PERSONAL SOCIAL AND 

ENVIRONMENTAL SENTIMENTS ASSOCIATED WITH 
EDUCATION FOR 259 DECKER-BIRNEY RESIDENTS, SUMMER 19 74 



Coal and Energy Development and 
Planning Sentiment Measures 



Personal, Social Environment 
and Coal Sentiment Measures 



AG COAL 


-.21 


AGEMPLOY 


.13 


AGSACR 


.12 


GUILTYRS 


-.02 


AGNATNED 


.23 


ISSUEDIS 


-.17 


AGOWNED 


.17 


INTIMRES 


.04 


COALECON 


-.58 


BESTMTNE 


-.26 


COMPCMP 


-.04 


MINRSRES 


-.05 


NATNEED 


-.02 


SCLCOSTS 


.03 


ENOUGHMN 


.05 


PORLYINF 


.20 


OWE ELECT 


-.09 


TEACHTMP 


-.02 


DVLPINDS 


-.22 


NEWCHRCH 


-.17 


INDPLAN 


-.05 


DESRCONS 


.01 


INDSTGTS 


.19 


OBJMOVE 


-.15 


AG FOOD 


-.13 


POPTIES 


-.03 


PRVMINE 


.01 


EVALPLNS 


.00 


RIVDAM 


-.01 


COALTAX 


-.23 


MINGCOMP 


-.14 


COCONCRN 


-.12 


LANDCOND 


-.17 


BNFTRESD 


.05 


WTRCROPS 


-.11 


BNFTCITY 


.07 


SACRCOAL 


.06 


COALEFCT 


.03 


DRYTT 


.21 


AGPOLIND 


.04 


MPCRECLM 


.11 


DEEPMINE 


.01 


EMINTDMN 


.14 


BEACHDS 


-.05 


MPCNOAFF 


-.17 


MINESBTR 


-.11 


STRPTEXPN 


.05 


MNTANLAW 


-.13 


PREFRSTP 


-.18 


MECOAL 


.26 


MORLEASE 


.20 


MERATE 


.30 


MORPOWR 


.28 






MORSTRIP 


.24 






MORRAILR 


.24 






MINGCOMP 


.14 






RECIVPAY 


-.07 






AGPTENTL 


-.02 






SULFUR 


.03 






7MINES 


.01 






POORTMBR 


-.19 







156 - 



ic is possible that increased exposure to activities which accompany 
higher education may also be responsible for interest, hence ownership, 
associated with outdoor activities. This relationship has been men- 
tioned in other literature and deserves further, more stringent analysis 

than is possible in this study- (Matras, 1975) 

Persons with less education more frequently report health (5= --23) 

as a reason for remaining in the area. No other measures differentiating 

reasons for remaining in the area are evident. 

Knowledge Measures 

Persons of higher educational attainment are more llkelv to know 
teachers ({ - .36) as well as nurses (6~- .22) in the study area. Thev 
are less likely to know motel owners ( fr - .29). That is, only three 
mixed and nondefinitive differences occur for ownership. (See Table 6C) 

In summary, educational achievement does not appear to be as 
stronglv associated with dependent variables as are some other indepen- 
dent variables. Certainly, the social control effects evident in other 
places due to educational achievement are less evident here. Still, 
some rather strong differences do exist. Educational differences may 
well partially account for differences in willingness to accept planning, 
especially planning involving outsiders to the area. In part this mav 
be a consequence of a relatively high percentage of college-educated 
persons employed in the public sector. That is, many public employees 
already are engaged in positions of potential planning and development. 
Consequently, they may feel a need for qualified help whatever its 



157 - 



TABLE - PERSONAL ACQUAINTANCE OWNERSHIP AND AREA ATTRACTION 
6C MEASURES ASSOCIATED WITH EDUCATION FOR 259 DECKER- 
BIRNEY RESIDENTS, SUMMER 1974 



Personal 


Acquaintance 


Ownership 


Measures 


Area Attrac 
Measures 

DECBEAUT 


tion 


Measures 


OWN4WHL 


.09 




KNOCOP 


.13 


.06 


KNOTCHR 


.36 


OWNCYCL 


.40 


DECCONV 


.03 


KNOGROC 


-.18 


OWNSNMB 


.12 


DECHLTH 


-.23 


KNOELECT 


-.04 


OWNPWRBT 


.24 


DECCRIM 


-.14 


KNOPHYS 


-.01 


OWNCMPR 


-.18 


DECPOLL 


.03 


KNOCAFE 


-.01 


OWNTENT 


.27 


DECFAM 


-.15 


KNOMINST 


.11 


OWNCCSKI 


.54 


DECCOST 


.05 


KNOHRDWR 


.00 


OWNSKI 


.34 


DECINHRT 


-.08 


KNOSPRT 


-.10 


OWNWSKI 


.18 


DECFRND 


-.18 


KNOFIRE 


-.10 


OWNFISH 


.18 


DECREC 


.07 


KNOAUTO 


.04 


OWNBOW 


.40 


DECCLIM 


-.06 


KNOSERV 


-.05 


OWNPSTL 


-.01 


DECBUSNS 


-.11 


KNOPLUMB 


-.08 


OWNGUN 


-.31 


DECROOTS 


-.25 


KNONRS 


.22 


OWNMOVIE 


-.03 


DECLIFE 


-.05 


KNOMOTEL 


-.29 


OWN CAM 


.44 






KNOBNKR 


-.05 


OWNHORS 


-.09 







158 



source. Moreover, public employees are less likely to feel threats of 
personal loss due to planning 9ince little, if any of their personal 
lands are involved. 

However, the positive relationships between educational 
achievement and propensity for planning may be due to a greater 
sensitivity and understanding for planning because of exposure to 
failures to plan elsewhere and to the potential disruption which 
might result locally. 



- 150 - 



Occupation 

Among veriables associated with position in the social system 
probably none is more important nor more frequently studied than 
occupation. The occupational structure reflects the character of the 
entire social structure. The Decker-Birney Area clearly exemplifies 
this relationship. (See Appendix A) One hundred thirty-nine persons 
in agricultural occupations, for the most part ranchers and kindred 
workers, comprise over one-half (53. 7%) of the occupations for house- 
hold heads in the Decker-Birney Area. Forty-four persons holding 
positions in the private sector, businessmen, professionals and managers, 
contribute 17.0%, followed closely by thirty-eight heads of households 
in construction and thirty-eight teachers, Bureau of Land Management, 
Forest Service, (14.7% each) in the public sector. 

Persons in these occupational categories apoear to be fairlv similar 
along several socio-demographic dimensions. Before livint? in the Decker- 
Birney Area, over one-half of each category, except those in the private 
sector, had lived in Montana. Forty percent of the private sector had 
lived in Montana prior to living in their current location. Respondents 
in each occupational category overwhelmingly indicated that thev intend 
to stay in the area. The public sector had nine persons (23.7%) who 
plan to move from the area. This percentage, nearly twice as high as 
the nearest other occupational group, indicates the required transfers 
which occur in many civil positions. Despite the expectation that a 
move will take place, all but fourteen respondents felt thev were 
Montanans. Of these, operators and construction workers were least 

- 160 - 



likely to see themselves as Montanans, although only 5 (13.27) felt 

thev were not residents. 

While a malority of those in each occupation are married, consid- 
erable variation occurs across occupations. Thirty-six (94.72) and 
112 (81.2%) of operators and agricultural workers, resnectivelv, are 
married, whereas 29 (65.9-) and 21 (55.3%) respectively, of respondents 
in the private and nublic sectors are married. These differences occur 
primarily because more public sector persons remain single, 12 (31.6%), 
whereas private sector persons who are unmarried are distributed among 
single, 4 (9.1%), divorced or separated, 5 (11.4%), and widowed, 6 
(13.6%). In line with findings on marriage, public sector nersons are 
more likely to be childless, 15 (39.5%), than are other occupational 
categories. Over one-half of the other occupational groups have from 
one to three children. Large families are common in the Decker-Birney 
Area as illustrated by the frequencies of families with four or more 
children. Eleven (25%), private sector, 12 (31.6%) operators and 
construction 27 (19.4%) agriculture and 7 (18.4%) public sector 
respondents fall in this category. Of those respondents with adult 
children, the only difference that exists in where their children live 
is that at least one adult child of the public sector is more likelv 
to live out of Montana (71.4%) than are children of other respondents 
(82.6% - 85.2%). Of those in the private sector and operators (77%) 
feel their children like living outside Montana whereas only 36% of 
the respondents in agriculture and the public sector feel this way. 



161 - 



Onlv one-third of those in the private sector and operators generally 
feel their children would return to a Rood 1oh in Montana, whereas 
one-half of the Dublic sector and agriculture feel this wav. 

As should be expected, educational attainment varies considerably 
throughout the occupational structure. Most noticeably, the 22 
peoole (59.5%) in the public sector have attended college, whereas only 
4 (9.1%) private sector people , 1 (2.8%) operator, and 19 (11.9%) 
agricultural people have. Similarly, 18.9% of those in the public 
sector have not graduated from college, compared to between 35* r and 
39% for other occupational categories. 

Family income reflects educational attainment in large part. The 
public sector people and operators show the highest median incomes, with 
47.1% and 55.3% respectively earning between $10,000 and $20,000 each 
year compared to 31.6% and 22.0% in the private sector and agriculture. 
On the other hand, agriculture provides 37.6% with annual incomes 
over $20,000, followed by 15.8% in the private sector, 10.5% in construc- 
tion and 8.8% in the public sector. The private sector and agriculture 
also contribute the highest percentages of incomes under $5,000; 42.1% 
and 15.6% respectively of the private sector and agriculture respondents 
earn this amount, compared to 10.5% and 5.9% respectively of operators 
and public sector respondents. 

The Decker-Birney Area has only one community, Ashland, which can 
be designated non-rural. Ninety-eight of the respondents reside in 
Ashland, compared to 161 residing throughout the Decker-Birney Area. 
As might be expected, some occupations are more heavily represented 



- 162 - 



among town dwellers. Whereas only 3.6% of respondents in agriculture 
live in Ashland, most other occupations are aggregated there. 7.5% of 
the public sector, 75% of the private sector and RA.2% of the operators 
live in Ashland. 

This section describes the socio-demographic characteristics in an 
ordinal manner along several dimensions. That is, the expressed concern 
for the area as a specific place, and for conservation issues, in general, 
separated the private and construction sectors from the agricultural 
and public sectors. Their occupations reflect this relative attachment 
to the land, then, was used as justification for this order utilized for 
analysis. The way of life of businessmen, operators and professionals 
might well be expressed in a similar manner in practically anv location. 
The way of life among ranchers, Forest Service personnel, and even the 
public helping professions may be expressed only in the rural environment. 

Satisfaction Measures 

Occupation appears to discriminate satisfaction of residents more 
effectively than all independent variables except those reflecting age, 
vears spent in the area and where one resides (rural - non-rural). 
(See Table 6D) 

A majority of respondents in each occupation are happy with the 
area. More agricultural and public sector workers feel the area has 
the elements essential for happiness than do operators or public sector 
persons ( Q - -.37) and that more are satisfied with their lives (jf= -.22) 
This happiness may in part be accounted for by how these pairings differ 



- 163 - 



TABLE 
6D 



MEASURES OF SATISFACTION AND GENERAL NON-COAL 
PLANNING MEASURES ASSOCIATED WITH OCCUPATIONAL 
STATUS FOR 259 DECKER-BIRNEY RESIDENTS, SUMMER 19 74 



Area and Personal Satisfaction 
Me a9 urea 



General Non-Coal Area Planning 
Measures 



AREHAP 


.38 


AREPOP 


.29 


AREDESIR 


.12 


USPOP 


-.04 


ARETAX 


.09 


FAVRDPAV 


-.28 


ARESCHL 


.00 


FAVWILD 


.15 


ARESHOP 


.01 


FAVCONDV 


.00 


ARECONST 


-.13 


FAVPUBAC 


-.11 


ARESAFE 


.20 


FAV CLOSE 


.19 


ARETRAF 


-.33 


AGSTPLAN 


.04 


AREPOL 


-.02 


AGFDPLAN 


.10 


ARERECO 


-.40 


AGINDCOM 


.01 


ARERECI 


-.25 


PROFSELF 


-.07 


AREMED 


.31 


PROFFRND 


-.06 


ARESXED 


.07 


PROFPWR 


.01 


AREADED 


-.13 


PRO FARE A 


.00 


AREHELTH 


-.23 


FAVPLAN 


-.05 


AREJOBOP 


.09 


OPPLAN 


.10 


ARECOUNS 


-.16 


SCIOPP 


.01 


ARES EN R 


.23 


SCIVOTE 


-.13 


ARE CHILD 


.28 


WHOPLAN 


-.06 


AREMINLV 


-.27 


OGHTPLAN 


.02 


AREHOUSP 


.30 


PLANHARM 


-.14 


AREHLP 


.19 


STRPRCLM 


.11 


ARE CROWD 


.06 


AREAPLN 


.29 


ARESCNDS 


.08 


PLNFIND 1 


-.03 


AREINDPW 


.28 


PLNFIND 2 


-.21 


AREHWYCN 


.12 


PLNEARLY 


.27 


AREPOPGW 


.00 


PLNRESLT 


.19 


ARELVCON 


-.34 


AGINDSUP 


.31 


AGHELP 


-.14 


AGSCI 


-.12 


AGS AT IS 


.22 


AGINFL 


-.12 


SEEBTR 


-.16 


AGP E ACE 


-.15 


SEECHG 


.15 


AGPOWR 


.17 


PWRMINE 


,09 


AGINFAV 


-.16 


SHFTRANC 


-.15 


ENGYCRIS 


.09 






NOSTOP 


.27 






DEMVOTE 


-.19 






LOCALGOV 


-.01 






OLDTMRS 


-.20 






EMPLYSGO 


.06 






BADEMPLY 


.01 






LVNGCNDT 


.18 






CHILDITR 


-.07 






CHILDLDR 


-.17 






EPLTRES 


.15 






FEE LP ART 


-.12 



- 164 - 



on more specific satisfaction indicators. Public and especially 
agricultural sector persons feel the area is safer, ( j ■ -.20), has 
no traffic problems (i -.33), has desirable living conditions for 
them (\ ■ .34), has no need for additional outdoor ( )f = -49) or 
indoor (J"* .25) recreational facilities, has excellent health and 
medical care (jf =-.31), and therefore does not need a more developed 
health program (0 «.23), has adequate facilites for senior citizens 
(0 =-.24), is a good place to rear children (]) =-.28), has no need 
for additional minority persons ($" ■ .27), has no public housing 
problem ( = .31), has sufficient paved highways out of the area 
(Q-.28). Together these specific indicators show whv the agricultural 
and public sector workers find more general satisfaction with the area. 

Planning 

Agricultural and public sector persons are more likely to express 
concern more frequently than construction or public sector persons when 
other matters are considered. The agriculture and public sector people 
more frequently feel that industrial interests are too powerful in the 
area C\ --.28), that a moratorium on leasing state and federal lands 
should be extended (u - -.21), that more power nlants should not be 
built in the area (q- -.30), that more strip mines should not be 
developed in the area (0 - -.34), that no rail or power lines should be 
built in the area (q - -.24), that the area should not be the site of 
generating plants (q - -.29). 

Some of the reasons for this ocposition to industrial develonment 



- 165 - 



frequently expressed by agricultural and public sectors are that 
nonulation influx might negatively influence family ties (ft- -.27), 
industrialization may upset local decision making ( {f- .20) and the 
community (ft- -.31), that neither the nation ( - .20) nor the 
administration needs Montana coal ( {f- -32), that local residents have 
the right to interfere with coal development ((f- .36), that residents 
have no duty to generate electricity (tf- .21) or to develop Montana 
industry (^- .31), that they should not have to move if area coal 
develops (^ - .26), that coal decisions are based more on economic 
than human reasons < jf- .43), that coal companies respond onlv to the 
law rather than that the power companies are not really concerned with 
the environment (ft- .21), that development should not occur just 
because power companies claim a need for more electricity 0|j - .23), 
for compassion for the people (f - -.23), that rivers will be dammed 
following industrialization (if- -.23), that the area is good timber 
land ( - .35), agricultural land and should not be strip mined (Q " .46), 
that oower plants would use water intended for crops (7j = .27), that 
springs would dry up ( tf- -.47) following strip mining, that strip mining 
is incomoatible with other land uses ( f- .38), that deep mining is more 
desirable for eastern Montana (Q - -.20), that recreational land cannot 
be sacrificed for coal development (if- .29), that claims about recla- 
mation are unbelievable (£f- .28), that ranch operations will be 
affected by power plants ((f- .4), that area residents would not be 
better off if strip mines are developed ((jf- .39), that strin mines 
would not be the best for the area ((J"- .26) or for Montana (fi" - .46), 



- 166 - 



that no more coal development is needed for Montana ( Q ■ -.28), that 
miners would not adapt like local residents (Q - .31), that social 
costs have not been considered (Q- -.23), that outside areas would 
benefit from coal development (Q- .21). (See Table 6E) 

Moreover, a similar set of questions asked reagrding the effects 
of development and the motive for development of the proposed generating 
plants three and four at Colstrip elicited approximately the same 
response differences. 

Knowledge Concerning Planning 

In consequence to the general satisfaction expressed regarding the 
area as it is and general opposition to further development, especially 
of an industrial nature, persons in the agricultural and public sectors 
tend to know more and participate more regarding planning than do 
persons in the private sector and, especially, in construction. 
Agricultural and public sector persons frequently stated that they were 
aware of efforts for planning in the local area (0" -.29), found out 
about these efforts trhough formal contacts and unspecific means than 
through friends (J- .21). However, they had not heard of planning 
quite as early as had the other sectors (q - -.27). They feel they 
should influence coal decisions (0 - . 31) although they do not feel 
they influence development decision making ( K ■ .26) and do not feel 
they currently have too much power (fl - .20). Only a maloritv of the 
public sector feels that progress can be stopped, heavily influencing 
the association ( q - .27) along this dimension. 



- 167 - 



TABLE - MEASURES (GAMMA) OF COAL AND ENERGY DEVELOPMENT 
6E PLANNING SENTIMENTS AND PERSONAL SOCIAL AND 

ENVIRONMENTAL SENTIMENTS ASSOCIATED WITH OCCUPATIONAL 
STATUS FOR 259 DECKER-BIRNEY RESIDENTS, SUMMER 1974 



Coal and Energy Development and 



Personal, Social Environment 
and Coal Sentiment Measures 



AGCOAL 


-.32 


AGEMPLOY 


.17 


AGSACR 


.16 


GUILTYRS 


.13 


AGNATNED 


.36 


ISSUEDIS 


-.13 


AGOWNED 


.13 


INTIMRES 


.13 


COALECON 


-.43 


BESTMINE 


-.46 


COMPCMP 


.23 


MINRSRES 


-.31 


NATNEED 


-.20 


SCLCOSTS 


.23 


ENOUOHMN 


.17 


PORLYINF 


-.04 


OWE ELECT 


-.21 


TEACHTMP 


-.04 


DVLPINDS 


-.31 


NEWCHRCH 


-.18 


INDPLAN 


-.04 


DESRCONS 


-.18 


INDSTGTS 


.02 


OBJMOVE 


-.26 


AGFOOD 


.12 


POPTIES 


.12 


PRVMINE 


.07 


EVALPLNS 


.01 


RIVDAM 


.23 


COALTAX 


.01 


MINGCOMP 


-.3R 


COCONCRN 


.21 


LANDCOND 


.12 


BNFTRESD 


.26 


WTRCROPS 


-.29 


BNFTCITY 


-.21 


5ACRC0AL 


.29 


COALEFCT 


.29 


DRYUP 


.47 


AGPOLIND 


-.01 


MPCRECLM 


.28 


DEEPMINE 


-.20 


EMINTDMN 


.17 


BEACHDS 


.12 


MPCNOAFF 


-.41 


MINESBTR 


-.39 


STRPTEXPN 


-.01 


MNTANLAW 


-.06 


PREFRSTP 


-.17 


ME COAL 


.31 


MORLEASE 


.34 


ME RATE 


.26 


MORPOWR 


.30 






MORSTRIP 


.34 






MORRAILR 


.24 






MINGCOMP 


.38 






RECIVPAY 


-.06 






AGPTENTL 


-.46 






SULFUR 


.00 






7MINES 


.29 






POORTMBR 


-.35 







- 168 - 



Ovnerhslp Measures 

Possessions are one indication of the life style of persons and, 
consequently, may provide some insight into how thev participate with 
the environment. A series of questions regarding varieties of ownership 
and use of times related to land use recreation was asked in order to 
differentiate among respondents of different categories. Some possessions, 
of course, such as four-wheel -drive vehicles reflect occupational needs 
rather than merely recreational preferences. However, even in these 
cases the possessions reflect a commitment to life stvle. Consult 
Appendix A for the percentages and frequencies of ownership and use of 
particular objects. 

Occupational order continues to discriminate along lines of owner- 
ship. That is, ranchers and public sector persons are more likely 
than construction and private sector persons to own a horse (fl = -.33), 
four-wheel-drive vehicles ( (f - -.28) and snowmobiles ( f- -.24). 
See Table 6F ) They are more likely to own a tent ( Q- -.32), cross 
country skis ( $ » -.40), skis ((f~« .23) but less likely to own water 
skis (f m .20). Ranchers and public sector persons are more likely to 
own a camera ( Q =» .30). 

Social relationships, even casual acquaintances are probably more 
important than material possessions in accounting for attachment to an 
area. The relatively small population of the area and the interaction 
pattern which favors personal knowledge of others probably eliminate 
anv marked differences among occupational groups. Public sector persons 



- 169 - 



TABLE 
6F 



PERSONAL ACQUAINTANCE OWNERSHIP AND AREA ATTRACTION 
MEASURES ASSOCIATED WITH OCCUPATIONAL STATUS FOR 
259 DECKER-BIRNEY RESIDENTS, SIMMER 1974 



Personal Acquaintance 
Measures 



Ownership Measures 



KNOCOP 


.11 


KNOTCHR 


.13 


KNOGROC 


.17 


KNOELECT 


-.12 


KNOPHYS 


.22 


KNOCAFE 


-.17 


KNOMINST 


.04 


KNOHRDWR 


.02 


KNOSPRT 


-.18 


KNOFTRF 


-.27 


KNOAUTO 


-.01 


KNOSERV 


-.12 


KNOPLUMB 


-.15 


KNONRS 


.12 


KNOMOTEL 


-.22 


KNOBNKR 


-.02 



OWN4WHL 


-.30 


OWNCYCL 


.02 


OWNSNMB 


.24 


OWNPWRBT 


-.10 


OWNCMPR 


-.05 


OWNTENT 


.32 


OWNCCSKI 


.40 


OWNSKI 


.23 


OWNWSKI 


-.20 


OWNFISH 


.17 


OWNBOW 


-.09 


OWNPSTL 


-.08 


OWNGUN 


.12 


OWNMOVIE 


-.03 


OWNCAM 


.30 


OWNHORS 


.33 



Area Attrac 


tion 


Measures 




DECBEAUT 


.11 


DECCONV 


.17 


DECHLTH 


.13 


DECCRIM 


.19 


DECPOLL 


.33 


DECFAM 


-.05 


DECCOST 


-.07 


DECTNHRT 


.16 


DECFRND 


-.05 


DECREC 


-.02 


DECCLIM 


.05 


DECBUSNS 


.11 


DECROOTS 


.08 


DECLIFE 


.35 



- 170 - 



an 



d agricultural persons acknowledge knowing (See Table &T ) a 
physician ( 6~" - 22 ) more frequently. On the other hand, thev appear 
to be slightly less likely to know persons in occupations which exist 
in Ashland such as firemen (ft- .27) and a motel owner (0 s " .22). 

Social questions were asked in order to examine factors which 
might be important to residents in their choice to settle or remain 
in the area. Among the strongest associations reported hv ranchers 
and the public sector in contrast to the public sector and operatives 
were the absence of pollution ( Q • -.33) and the way of life (q ■ -.35) 



171 - 



Family Income 

Family income, along with occupation and education, constitutes 
a powerful indicator of socio-economic status. (Perrv - Perry, 1973) 
Throughout the literature in sociology probably no other construct is 
used so frequently and with so much predictive success as is socio- 
economic status. Socio-economic status differentiates relative 
opportunities and obligations to behave in particular ways and to 
nerceive the world in particular ways. (Popenoe, 1974) 

In social control terms, socio-economic position is associated with 
particular varieties of control. For example, the highest economic 
strata tend to operate in economically vested interests. Their training, 
occupations and ways of life generally are concordant with these interests. 
That is, the means for maintaining the vested interests rest largelv with 
the unique skills, motivations and socialization of that class. Conse- 
quently, the socio-economic system acquires a historical dimension and 
comes to be characteristic by different behaviors and perspectives for 
different socio-economic groups. 

As discussed throughout this report, most respondents are generally 
satisfied with the Decker-Bireny Area. Income seems to have relatively 
little effect on satisfaction. It certainly is less associated with 
satisfaction than are other variables. Exceptions to the general rule 
probably occur because of weak associations between income, place of 
residence and occupation. That is, higher income persons are more likely 
to live on rural farms. Consequently, they may be less likelv to see 



- 172 - 



traffic as a problem as frequently as townspeople ( Q - -.28) while more 
likely to feel their living conditions as desirable (Q" .32). Similarly, 
persons with higher incomes are more satisfied with the adequacy of 
current outdoor recreation facilities (y" .22) and thev constitute the 
largest majority opposed to having more minority residents in the area 
( X= .21). They are more likely to feel the area has more helpful 
people (Q - .23) and is a good one in which to raise children (q ■ .32), 
while lower income respondents strongly favor more paved roads (74.4*") 
only one-half of upper income respondents feel that way (q ■ .28). 

Attitudes regarding planning appear to be a little more strongly 
associated with income than are satisfaction measures. For example, 
the higher the income among respondents, the more negative effects 
thev anticipate following area population growth even if adequate plan- 
ning occurs (Q = .20). They certainly do not feel an obligation to 
Montana to develop industry (Q - .26). In fact, upper income brackets 
see development and population influx as probably affecting family ties 
( v = .22) and more strongly disagree that power is being transferred to 
ranch owners from townspeople (y™ .21). 

Uoper income persons also differed slightly from lower income 
persons with regard to matters they feel should be considered regarding 
planning. While no income bracket feels economic reasons should solely 
dictate decision making, persons with lowest incomes are least likely 
to feel this way. (\j m -30). Paradoxically, upner income p( 



>ersons more 



- 173 - 



strongly agreed that strip mining is the preferahle form of mining 
because it is more economical (0" .20). 

Responses regarding who should be involved in planning, again, 
did not differ as strongly by income as by other independent variables, 
Of all respondents 62.1% felt that state or professional planners 
should be used in planning for Montana Development. This belief was 
stronger among high incomes than lower incomes ( $"» .20). Similarly, 
fewer lower income persons felt that persons like themselves should 
influence coal decision making (0" .38). Upper income persons unan- 
imously agreed that area people need a stronger voice in Dlanning the 
area ( o"=" .58). 

Persons of higher income generally are reported to have more 
positive outlooks. (Popenoe, 1974) Among our respondents this trend 
holds. Income was inversely associated with feeling helpless in the 
world (0- .27). 

Upper income respondents were more likely to feel miners do not 
adapt like local residents ( /f- .20). (See Table 60) 

Satisfaction Measures 

Family income appears to be only slightly associated with socio- 
demographic characteristics of respondents. That is, the sex, 
education, age, place or characteristics of Dlace where raised, nlace 
most recently lived prior to current location and most other measures 
of social location do not differ across income categories. 

A few exceptions to this lack of association were evident. For 



- 174 - 



TABLE 
6G 



MEASURES (GAMMA) OF COAL AND ENERGY DEVELOPMENT 
PLANNING SENTIMENTS AND PERSONAL SOCIAL AND 
ENVIRONMENTAL SENTIMENTS ASSOCIATED WITH FAMILY 
INCOME FOR 259 DECKER-BIRNEY RESIDENTS, SUMMER 1974 



Coal and Energy Development and 
Planning Sentiment Measures 



Personal, Social Environment 
and Coal Sentiment Measures 



AGCOAL 


.11 


AGEMPLOY 


.05 


AGSACR 


.19 


GUILTYRS 


.03 


AGNATNED 


.14 


ISSUEDIS 


.01 


AGOWNED 


.05 


INTIMRES 


-.15 


CO ALE CON 


-.30 


BESTMINE 


-.14 


COMPCMP 


-.16 


MINRSRES 


-.20 


NATNEED 


.13 


SCLCOSTS 


.12 


ENOUGHMN 


-.05 


PORLYINF 


.01 


OWEELECT 


-.14 


TEACHTMP 


-.11 


DVLPINDS 


-.26 


NEWCHRCH 


.04 


INDPLAN 


-.02 


DESRCONS 


-.10 


TNDSTGTS 


.01 


OBJMOVE 


.12 


AGFOOD 


-.13 


POPTIES 


.22 


PRVMINE 


-.02 


EVALPLNS 


.05 


RIVDAM 


-.02 


CO ALT AX 


-.07 


MINGCOMP 


.06 


COCONCRN 


-.03 


LANDCOND 


-.13 


BNFTRESD 


.07 


WTKCROPS 


.01 


BNFTCITY 


-.16 


SACRCOAL 


-.02 


COALEFCT 


.62 


DRY UP 


.08 


AGPOLIND 


.06 


MPCRECLM 


.05 


DEEPMINE 


.14 


EMINTDMN 


.14 


BEACHDS 


.04 


MPCNOAFF 


-.19 


MINESBTR 


-.09 


STRPTEXPN 


-.02 


MNTANLAW 


-.13 


PREFRSTP 


.20 


MECOAL 


.38 


MORLEASE 


-.05 


MERATE 


.03 


MORPOWR 


.02 






MORSTRIP 


.07 






MORRAILR 


.08 






MINGCOMP 


-.06 






RECIVPAY 


-.05 






AGPTENTL 


.05 






SULFUR 


.05 






7MINES 


.18 






POORTMBR 


.15 







- 175 



example, the longer respondents have resided in the area, the higher 
their income ( jj - .23). Similarly, the higher their income the more 
children they have (ft - .11), the more dissatisfied they feel their 
children residing away from Montana ( v) *" >41) and the more thev feel 
their children would return to Montana for a desirable 1ob ( ft = .20). 
Rural people were more likely to have higher family incomes (ft = .23). 
In fact, over one-third of the rural family incomes were reported to 
exceed $20,000 compared to only 12.4% of the townspeople. (See Table 6H) 

The percentages of respondents throughout these categories also 
fail to distinguishclear differences. For example, approximately 
equal numbers of women and men earn incomes throughout each income 
categories. Only the lowest income, under 35000.00 has fewer 
than twenty percent of the respondents, and onlv the imper middle 
categories, between S10,000 and $19,999 has as many as one-third 
of the respondents. 

Ownership Measures 

The acquisition of possessions is in part determined by income. 
(Matras, 1975) In the Decker-Birney Area, where higher income is 
further associated with rural farm life, differences in possessions 
are further evident. Higher income was associated with ownership of 
four-wheel-drive vehicles (Q- .52), motorcycles ( (j - .25), snowmo- 
biles ($- .63), tents ( tf - .35), skis (]f - .21), water skis (^ =■ .2R), 
guns (ft- .55), movie cameras (Q- .21), 35mm cameras (^f= .27) and 
horses ( Q ■ .62). In short, upper income was more strongly associated 



- 176 



TABLE - MEASURES OF SATISFACTION AND GENERAL NON-COAL 
611 PLANNING MEASURES ASSOCIATED WITH FAMILY INCOME 

FOR 259 DECKER-BIRNEY RESIDENTS, SUMMER 1974 



Area and Personal Satisfaction 
Measures 



General Non-Coal Area Planning 
Measures 



AREHAP 


.04 


AREPOP 


.20 


AREDESIR 


.00 


USPOP 


.07 


ARETAX 


.06 


FAVRDPAV 


-.28 


ARESCHL 


.01 


FAVWILD 


.16 


ARESHOP 


-.01 


FAVCONDV 


.08 


ARECONST 


-.14 


FAVPUBAC 


-.12 


ARE SAFE 


.01 


FAVCLOSE 


-.06 


ARETRAF 


-.28 


AGSTPLAN 


.20 


AREPOL 


-.07 


AGFDPLAN 


.02 


ARERECO 


-.22 


AGINDCOM 


-.00 


ARERECI 


-.11 


PROFSELF 


.06 


AREMED 


-.09 


PROFFRND 


-.on 


ARESXED 


.07 


PROFPWR 


-.00 


AREADED 


.19 


PRO FARE A 


.02 


AREHELTH 


-.15 


FAVPLAN 


.10 


AREJOBOP 


.11 


OPPLAN 


.04 


ARECOUNS 


-.14 


SCIOPP 


.19 


ARESENR 


.16 


SCI VOTE 


.11 


ARECHILD 


.32 


WHOP LAN 


-.08 


AREMINLV 


-.21 


OGHTPLAN 


.07 


AREHOUSP 


.02 


PLANHARM 


.03 


AREHLP 


.23 


STRPRCLM 


.08 


ARECROWD 


.02 


AREAPLN 


.12 


ARESCNDS 


-.13 


PLNFIND 1 


.06 


AREINDPW 


-.01 


PLNFIND 2 


.23 


AREHWYCN 


.04 


PLNEARLY 


.11 


AREPOPGW 


.08 


PLNRESLT 


.07 


ARELVCON 


-.32 


AGINDSUP 


.02 


AGHELP 


-.27 


AGS CI 


-.16 


AGSATIS 


.05 


AGINFL 


-.13 


SEEBTR 


-.03 


AGPEACE 


-.09 


SEECHG 


.02 


AGPOWR 


.19 


PWRMINE 


.02 


AGINFAV 


-.18 


SHFTRANC 


-.23 


ENGYCRIS 


-.00 






NOSTOP 


.15 






DEMVOTE 


-.06 






LOCALGOV 


.09 






OLDTMRS 


-.15 






EMPLYSGO 


.08 






BADEMPLY 


.08 






LVNGCNDT 


.02 






CHILDITR 


-.04 






CHILDLDR 


-.00 






EPLTRES 


.0? 






FEELPART 


-.29 



- 177 - 



with possessions than with any other set of dependent variables, 
although the nature of the associations were similar to those found 
for other more strongly associated independent variables. For this 
reason, possessions probably are weaker indicators of economic- 
class activities than of occupational and life style activities found in 

the rural farm areas. 

In conjunction with the slightly stronger satisfaction directly 
associated with income, the reasons for satisfaction also should be 
slightly more pronounced as income increases. Income was associated 
with being attracted to the area because of its lack of pollution (ft =.21), 
inheritance ($- .45) and business reasons <tf - .51). The two stronger 
associations, interestingly directlv reflect access to higher income. 
Except for pollution, wealthier persons seemed no more likely than poorer 
ones to consider other attachments as determinants for their choice to 
live in the area. Most persons, no matter what their incomes, found the 
presence of families and friends nearly to be most important. 

The knowledge of persons in different occupations was only weakly 
associated with income. The only difference was that upper income 
persons are more likely to know physicians ( ]f - .22). (See Table 61) 

Probably the most striking characteristic of the research findings 
reported in this chapter is that one measure of socio-economic status, 
occupation, differentiates far more clearly between respondents in the 
Decker-Birney ARea than do either of the other measures. In most social 
systems a higher correlation obtains between occupation, income and 



- 17* - 



TABLE - PERSONAL ACQUAINTANCE OWNERSHIP AND AREA ATTRACTION 
61 MEASURES ASSOCIATED WITH FAMILY INCOME FOR 259 

DECKER-BIRNEY RESIDENTS, SUMMER 1974 



Personal 


Acquaintance 


Ownership 


Measures 


Area Attrac 


tion 


Measures 








Measures 




KNO COP 


.10 


OWN4WHL 


.52 


DECBEAUT 


.OR 


KNOTCHR 


.02 


OWNCYCL 


.25 


DECCONV 


.12 


KNOGROC 


.16 


OWNSNMB 


.63 


DECHLTH 


.17 


KNO ELECT 


.08 


OWNPWRBT 


.13 


DECCRTM 


.08 


KNOPHYS 


.22 


OWN CMP R 


.07 


DECPOLL 


.21 


KNO CAFE 


.19 


OWNTENT 


.35 


DECFAM 


.08 


KNOMINST 


.14 


OWNCCSKI 


.01 


DECCOST 


-.06 


KNOHRDWR 


.15 


OWNSKI 


.21 


DECINHRT 


.45 


KNOSPRT 


-.02 


OWNWSKI 


.28 


DECFRND 


-.16 


KNO FIRE 


-.06 


OWNFISH 


.12 


DECREC 


-.16 


KNOAUTO 


.07 


OWNBOW 


-.05 


DECCLIM 


-.04 


KNOSERV 


.11 


OWNPSTL 


.18 


DECBUSNS 


.51 


KNOPLUMB 


.00 


OWNGUN 


.55 


DECRODTS 


.13 


KNONRS 


-.02 


OWNMOVIE 


.21 


DECLIFE 


.16 


KNOMOTEL 


.13 


OWNCAM 


.27 






KNOBNKR 


.15 


OWNHORS 


.62 







- 179 - 



education than occur9 in the 9tudy area. Since income and occupation 
are relatively uncorrelated with education, the interdependence among 
these measures is weakened. Moreover, since a considerable importance 
within the area is given to rural-farm versus town-non-agricultural 
differentiation. The combining of all socio-economic measures into a 
single variable is probably done for less in the study area than in 
most other places. What this means is that because of the unique 
qualities of the area, different characteristics of the residents are 
associated with their responses than would be found in most other 
locations. 



- 180 - 



Chapter 7 
INING AND ITS IMPLICATIONS IN 'THE DECKER-BIRNEY STUDY AREA 

Although planning of towns and cities has occupied men throughout 
history, planning in the county has received far less attention (Reily, 
1973). .hose few attempts at creating Utopian designs in rural areas 
generally have been dedicated to the optimal use of one persons estate. 
The three field English manor or Jefferson's plans for the Monticello 
property are noteworthy examples. Unlike city and town planning, 
however, rural plans optimize rural land use for a single owner rather 
than for all citizens. This traditional approach was and may continue 
to be sound in areas where development alternatives to agrarian 
production are minimal. In areas with probable alternative development 
more universal planning may be more appropriate in order to assure 
diversified land use patterns, adequate benefits from competing resource 
use alternatives and aesthetically desirable development. Moreover, the 
criteria for desirable rural planning are more difficult to specify than 
for the city. 

Adopting a plan is but the final step of a lengthy process. Even 
after extensive effort has permitted a comprehensive analysis of an area 
and the issues involved with its development, the optimal resolution of 
the information through a plan will be difficult to arrive at. Plans 
follow directly and obviously from information in only the rarest and 
simplest cases. The more usual plans reflect an attempt to optimize 
development for competing and frequently mutually exclusive sets of 



181 - 



interests. hi some cases the decision to develop may ultimately spell 
the end of an indigeneous economy and style of life. When analysis of 
physical, economic and social factors indicate such a radical effect, 
decision makers defining and implementing a plan must be certain that 

interests of the public are being served. Most planning texts 
indicate the need to optimize public interest. As one author succinctly 
puts it, "Should local interests conflict with national interests, 
national interests will need to take precedence" (Brown and Sherrard). 

ver, the thorny questions of how operating in the local interests may 
ultimately compose the national interest is scarcely mentioned in texts. 
For this reason, among others, a general plan based on universal rules 
applicable to all potential development would allow the use of areas to 
be determined with a minimum of conflict and with a maximum of stable 
expectation. Following this recommendation, tiie national interest would 
be defined before actual development. hence, the piecemeal development 
which now occurs, often under the guise of serving the national interest, 
might be reduced. In any case, persons living in areas of potential 

Lopment would do so with full knowledge that the location might 
radically change. With this knowledge, local persons could plan for the 
future rataer than experiencing the trauma of unanticipated change. 

The test of a body of information of how the variety presented here 
ultimately rests with its utility. However interesting the findings strike 
a reader, they are of relatively little value unless they provide a means 
for accomplishment. Two general contributions have been attempted 
throughout this report. The first intent has been to describe an immense 



- 182 - 



amount of information related to a wide variety of relevant issues and 
bits ot ion associated with development and planning in 

the Decker-Birney Area. T indings are especially directed toward 

persons involved with the planning process in the area. The second 
intent has been the first, albeit rough, attempt to analyze the infor- 
mation from a social control perspective. This attempt may be an early 

■■, among others, at providing a theoretically useful systematic 
approach to the analysis of land use planning and development. :Joth 
ntions deserve further comment. 
In presenting the information collected for this research the author 
has continually had to ask what kind of information would be useful to 
persons engaged in directing the future uses of the study area. Aware 
that no research report can determine the future divertion of an area, 
the solution to the question was to provide a plethora of information 
from the perspectives of different sub-categories of respondents. The 
decision-maker, upon reading this report, should have sound bases for 

Lng now particular types of persons, i.e., rural or town, agricultural 
or non-agricultural, elderly or youthful, feel regarding the issues and 
information addressed in the interviews. This knowledge should help 
decision makers be aware of how particular varieties might respond to 
aids in decision-making provided from different sources as well as how 
respondents might react to different decisions. Given this knowledge, 
decision-makers should further be capable of correcting misinformation, 
where held, providing new information, where necessary, and thereby 
resolving inconsistencies and contradictions, where possible. While many 



- 1R3 - 



of the differences and disagreements evident among respondents cannot 
be resolved by appropriate information, many others can. In the course 
of decision-making an attempt to resolve as many communication problems 
as possible should be made. 

Decision-makers have t ratitionally attempted to operate according 
to optimizing principles. Modern land-use decision-makers, especially, 
have sought to balance the maximum development of competing resources 
against each other. In the case of the Decker-Birney Area, decision-makers 
eventually must decide how the competing extraction of a non-renewable 
resource, coal, and renewable resources of agriculture and timber will 
be accomplished. This competition is further complicated for the 
decision-maker because of the strong social and emotional attachments 
regarding the competing technologies. Operating in this emotion-laden 
conflict, decision-making is further complicated by confusion regarding 
the actual economic and environmental effects around which the social 
and emotional responses have developed. 

Decision-makers, operating both within and outside administrative 
bureaucracies, do not act totally without guidance. Legislation provides 
considerable guidance, although even the best laws often fail to dictate 
precisely what decisions are appropriate for a particular time and place. 
As such, decision-makers solicit additional information, some of which 

in the form of research reports. Upon reviewing this information 
in total, decision-makers become aware of the varieties of optima which 
can be generated around potential development in a particular area. 
Single, uncomplicated solutions, if they are made, are made at the 



184 



ense of several more complicated proposals. This report, it is 
hoped, helps provide some of the necessary information to enable decision- 
makers to arrive at more reasonable policies than they would have been 
able to formulate without the information. And, if the information 
provided is utilized in policy formulation, the policy may indeed be a 
complicated one. 

The value of providing a general and systematic perspective for 
interpreting research information may be regarded as superfluous by 
decision-makers. Many of the problems facing decision-makers are 
removed from any theoretical perspective and instead must be solved 
according to factors independent of social causes of respondents' 
attitudes and activities. Even so, the author maintains such general 
interpretations can be and should be useful to decision-makers for 
important reasons. By becoming aware of some of the social causes for 
the feelings and activities, decision-makers may become increasingly 
sensitive to why persons believe as they do rather than just what they 
believe. This dimension of knowledge should help decision-makers appreciate 
the social bases and intensity of feelings of divergent groups in the study 
area. Furthermore, general systematic interpretations of behavior provide 
a similar perspective for comparing the widely divergent categories in 
the study area. 

The potential contribution of a general theoretical perspective 
probably is greater for persons engaged in research, in this case 
social-environmental assessment research, than for decision-makers. 
Research directed toward social impact assessment is a relatively new 



- 1R5 - 



endeavor. Consequently, the guidelines for such research are neither 
clearly specified nor sublectively understood. Persons involved in such 
research and contracting agencies and industries disagree among 
themselves about what the appropriate criteria for the research may be. 
The final consensus, if it eventually emerges, will be determined to a 
great extent bv trial and error. Researchers eventually may come to 
agree that particular methodologies adequately describe the potentials 
of social change in a valid and reliable manner. Decision-makers of 
the future mav accept the research findings as suitable for satisfving 
their needs of input in the decision-making process. Meanwhile, since 
this consensus lies in the not-so-immediate future, researchers must 
continue to aid decision-makers through their research results and at 
the same time help to establish useful and acceptable research procedures 
for their colleagues engaged in comparable research. 

The need for a professionally appropriate annroach to research mav 
be difficult for decision-makers to appreciate. Since each case is 
unique, decision-makers may regard the analysis and interpretation of 
results from particular methodologies and theories as unnecessary and 
perhaps confusing. To the researcher, however, the account of human 
behavior may have equal importance with the descriptive information 
valued by the decision-maker. Appreciating that each area and each 
population are unique, social scientists further trv to arrive their 
comparability. Through thia procedure perhaps the intentions of both 
researcher and decision-makers may be better met as well as nroviding 
each with a greater appreciation of the goals of the other. 



- 1R6 - 



The Relationship of Planning to Design 

Design, whether through enactment of legislation or drafting the 
use of space, is the midway point along a lengthy process. The process 
hegins with the acknowledgement of personal needs in a social context 
and ends with the adjustment to the products of design. The adequacy 
of design must be evaluated from the perspective of both past and future, 
Duality of design, ultimately determined by the degree to which users 
needs are met ultimately rests on the designers' projected knowledge of 
personal need and social context. Esoteric as these notions appear 
they nevertheless express as clear a reality as the distribution of 
wealth, health and convenience which express the collective needs or 
as the school, the hospital and the neighborhood, which stand as physical 
structures designed to fulfill those needs. 

No structure, whether legislature or constructive, emerges without 
a design. The abilities of a structure to provide for human needs for 
extended periods becomes the criteria for evaluating its quality. Most 
structures appear to have been constructed to perform rather limited 
tasks with a minimum of concern governing how their performances might 
effect the performances of still other needs at other times 



- 187 - 



The following diagram expresses this relationship. 



Value of design for contributing 
or deterring from other structures 
abilities to perform. 



Ability to satisfy 
the particular needs 
of precipitating the 
design i.e. for 
sufficient time. 





contributes 


deters 


high 






low 







The most desirable designs have the characteristic of providing for 
particular needs while contributing to the potential qualitv of all other 
activities. Even discounting cost-benefit ratios, such on optima, is 
difficult or impossible to achieve although it should act as the guiding 
principle for planning. Designs which provide much satisfaction toward 
a particular need but which do not compliment the performance of other 
needs provide the greatest ache in the planners side. 

Expedience often demands that critical needs be provided for in 
spite of obvious detrimental effects of a particular design. When 
expedience beckons, the planner should shudder and ask whether indeed the 
needs are as critical as some maintain, whether the design solution 
proposed is the only suitable one for meeting a particular one or whether 
a more compatible alternative is available. The Alaska pipeline exemp- 
lifies this dilemma. North slope oil certainlv promises an important 
short run contribution to a perceived energy need. A pipeline appears 
to be a more practical and acceptable means of transporting oil than anv 



- 188 - 



proposed alternative, despite the potentially devasting effects of a 
pipeline failure. Even barring failure, and excluding simple economics 
from the effects, the pipeline will perpetuate considerable long range 
repercussions. 

Planners have less trouble working with structures which appear to 
marginally satisfy particular needs. When such designs act to deter 
other uses of an environment, criticism is easy. The failure to approve 
a potentially disruptive power plant for construction at a particular 
site might fall into this category providing other sites appear more 
harmonious. 

The final combination of effects also can provide interesting 
possibilities for decision makers. That is, if the broad effects of 
a project appear satisfactory although the particular solutions provided 
by the project appear questionable, then the palnner may support the 
project for reasons ulterior to those initiating the project. Many 
projects associated with the ostensible defense of a nation seem to 
fall into this category. That is a local economy may flourish, 
environment improve, and social structure organize even though no 
appreciable defense follow from site or weapon development. 

Given the interdependence of design potential, the planner must 
continually evaluate potential effects of design. Once implemented, 
a design becomes manifested in a structure which may outline even the 
most foresighted visions. More likely, than not, if the structure 
exists beyond the original life span, the effects will probably not be 
the immediate ones Initiating the design so much as effects which 



189 - 



w 



profoundly effect the ability of a particular environment to meet other 
needs through concomitant creation of other structures. Such long term 

idespread effects can and will continue to fall along the full range of 
possibilities. That is, the desirable use of one area may be increased 
or nrecluded as a consequence of foresight or ignorance in the planning 
process. This ability to influence the future 9hould weigh heavily on 
the shoulders of the planner and should be the major impetus for 
deciding principles of development. 

The matter of utility, as has been discussed, is a function of the 
reliability and validity of information. Having agreed upon the relia- 
bility and validity of research information, the question of how to 
apply the information occurs. In this research, the paramount question 
revolves around how persons in the Decker-Birney Area would respond 
to the development of coal resources in the area. This question leads 
to still others involving who should be involved in planning for 
development and what the criteria for directing development should be. 

Rather than create formal scenarios, which tend to be unnecessarily 
restrictive for futuristic interpretation while at the same time some- 
what unrealistic, the author prefers to project what might occur if 
relatively little development occurs or what might occur if a great 
deal of development occurs. By "relatively little", the author means 
the development of more mining property unless already under lease. 
He further means that all coal extracted would be shipped out of state. 
No coal associated energy plants (conventional generating, gasification, 
M.H.D. ) are assumed. By "a great deal" of development the author means 



- 190 - 



unit train development as well as seven power generating plants built 
around the high yield mining operations necessary to sustain such 
operations. 

The extensiveness of development is the major, although certainly 
not the only important, dimension involved in conceptualizing what will 
occur to the social structure, sentiment and activities of residents of 
the study area. Also of great importance is the time dimension. If a 
slow and gradual pace of development occurred, for example development 
spread equally over a period of two centuries, then the effects of 
change on the social environment will be considerably less than if all 
development occurred by the end of this century. In the latter case 
the cultural conflict brought on by an influx of newcomers alone might 
account for a radical alteration in the indigenous social system in 
spite of effective programs for minimizing impacts on the physical 
environment. A third major dimension has to do with the location of 
such development. If coal mining was relatively restricted to the 
bottom lands yet inclusive of them, much of the viable economic base 
for agriculture would be lost. On the other hand if all development 
occurred on the higher table lands, the over all effect to the 
agriculture base would be reduced, although potentially severe, if 
aquifers were upset or if large numbers of newcomers were concentrated 
along the bottom lands. 

The interaction of these major dimensions with each other and with 
myriad other dimensions make precise quantification of the variety of 
potential effects upon the social environment extremely complex. The 

- 191 - 



author instead prefers to suggest more qualitative relationships and 
effects within the limits of time and personnel available to this 
project. Even if more refined analyses had been performed, the results 
still would have been reported in a qualitative manner because the 
subject matter is essentially qualitative and the reporting of such 
information is most intelligible when qualitatively treated. 

When analyzing the effect of change it is essential that the ability 
to respond to the change also be mentioned. At the same time that some 
changes would probably be perceived as universally undesirable others 
would be generally acceptable as desirable. Among different categories 
of residents there would be further differences in perception of 
desirability for these varieties of change. And, distributed among 
all respondents would be differences in how they are free to respond 
to the changes. Among persons wholly opposed to development would 
be some who could leave if their dissatisfaction reached sufficient 
magnitude. Others, especially the aged, those with relatives nearby, 
or families to raise, might have to remain in the area no matter how 
they might resent change around them. Certainly they may live with 
the stress imposed upon them, although the crucial issue to them is 
whether such change should have been imposed. If it were possible to 
maximize the development around persons who desire it and minimize it 
around the remaining majority , this problem of freedom to respond 
would have an optimal solution. However, particularzation of development 
effects on sub categories of residents is unlikely. Consequently, any 



- 192 - 



decision regarding development i3 going to please some residents while 
displeasing others and for reasons of social control many are not 
going to be able to do much about their displeasure. The principle 
of mutual exclusion is clearly evident in this process. 

An irony in the form of potential human tragedv exists around the 
freedom to resnond. The data reported in chapters on occupation and 
where persons live consistently demonstrate that the categories most 
opposed to development also are those most attached to the area. The 
author hypothesizes, although a proof does not exist without more 
systematic analysis, that the importance of associations of the purelv 
demographic variables of age, sex, marital status and parenthood 
ultimately would lose most of their value once their relative predictive 
value was compared with place of residence and occupation. Thus, the 
laregest number of area residents employed in the most prevalent 
occupation, agriculture and who have lived longest in the area are 
those most dependent upon the stability of the area for continuing to 
exist as they have chosen. And, these are the persons, who for 
reasons of social control might experience the greatest difficulty 
in leaving the area. On the other hand, the relative hardship in 
departing from the area probably would be less for those persons 
favoring coal development. 

The matter of the effects of coal development, again, is not a 
simple one. Having experienced the initial environmental and social 
alterations in their area, some residents may be moved to respond in 
further accordance with their expressed convictions while others mav 



- 193 - 



revise their interpretations. Residents who genuinely wanted the 
contributions of growth may be even more supportive of their initial 
position. Their support may be even more pronounced because the 
expression of commitment now might require continued defense and 
might reduce favorable interaction with the opponents of change. 
Meanwhile, if development occurred, opponents might look to any 
atrocities of growth and say, "I told you so". 

Both the extreme proponents and opponents of coal development 
may participate more actively in the future in order to assure the 
success of their respective positions. Such support mav take the 
form of increased organization. During the past five years membership 
and support already has rapidly expanded in organizations opposed to 
coal development in the area. The opponents, especially, may be prone 
to formally organize. They are more vulnerable to any change and have 
little to gain, as they see it, if development occurs. Proponents, 
on the other hand, generally are not directly involved with the decision 
making of coal development. Those decisions ultimately must be made bv 
industrialists operating within the lgeislated guidelines governing 
the extracting, processing, converting and transporting of coal. 
Local proponents, then, are more like fence sitters waiting to play 
while supporting the team whereas opponents already are engaged in an 
active competition with coal decision makers. Because of the greater 
involvement and potential perceived loss, opponents may also be more 
likely to take active opposition exclusive of legitimate organizations 
and channels. That is, opponents, probably will continue to make 



- 194 - 



appeals to legislators and the public more frequently than will local 
opponents, whose position is powerfully represented bv energy industries. 
And, if impending threat and loss looms too close for comfort, onnonents 
of development probably would be more likely to participate in 
illegitimate means to express their opposition, however counterproductive 
or ineffective such symbolic activities might be. 

All of the effects of development, of course, can not be 
prelected on the basis of the rather limited information collected 
for this report. What respondents actual responses to various levels 
of change in their environment will be is laregly unknown although 
their responses do provide some lustif ication for projecting what their 
responses might be. Moreover, as should now be clearly evident to the 
reader, responses to change are likely to show great variation since 
respondents differ along several dimensions related to change. That 
is, respondents differ in their receptivity to coal development and 
planning and to environmental and social change. With these areas of 
potential confusion and error pointed out, these projections should 
be regarded more as impressions of what might happen than as expectations 

for the future. 

If no further coal development were to occur in the Decker-Birney 
Area and if the probability of additional coal development was to 
approach zero, life in the area probably would continue in much the 
same wav as it has since the second World War. The strong attachment 
to the primary relationships of family and neighbors probablv would 
continue. Primary relationships in the study area are strongly founded 



195 - 



in practicality as well as in affection. Especially among the rural 
and agricultural persons, a majority among the respondents, family hoth 
nuclear and extended, and neighbors form a symbiotic bases which supports 
rural ranch life. If the requirements for this interdependence were 
eliminated i.e. if the malor economic sector was altered, then the 
relatively great importance of family and neighbors probably would be 
lost. In their place other valued aspects of social life probably 
would emerge. Greater reliance upon the nuclear family and less 
dependence upon extended family and neighbors probably would follow. 
The time required for these changes could vary according to the speed 
and extent of development and how involved particular persons are with 
the development in terms of both space and interaction networks. 
It should be expected that some ranchers who are removed from develop- 
ment sites will come to form a smaller permanent set of mutually 
interdependent neighbors than currently exists. Meanwhile rancers who 
have given up their land and quite likely their occupation probablv 
will experience a fairly rapid erosion of the primary interaction 
networks. Those who move away from the area will experience this loss 
almost immediately while others who remain will lose it as new 1obs 
are sought, friends are developed and common interests lost. That 
nearly intangible variable, way of life, is a composite of occupation, 
primary interaction and other attachments to place. As the reasons 
for those attachments are lost, so too will be the way of life. 



- 196 - 



Ironically, categories of respondents which show the greatest 
attachment to the area often are persons who have relatively less 
power than others. Young persons, women, single, divorced and 
separated persons often lack the forms of involvement which nermit 
establishing policy. Thus, the very persons who most frequently 
recognize development and planning issues may have relatively less 
power than others for participating in decisions to optimize the 
solutions of those issues. 

Although the changes in family and neighbors would be most 
profound among rural agricultural dwellers, even non-agricultural 
townspeople undoubtedly would undergo similar processes albeit in an 
abbreviated manner. Even in Ashland, respondents consistantly felt 
neighbors and family were important. At the same time Ashland resi- 
dents were less likely to regard their living conditions as satis- 
factory for a variety of reasons. Many of those reasons, including 
access to outdoor recreation, safety and desirability of housing 
might well be aggravated for a lengthy period if the experiences of 
coal associated development elsewhere were to occur in the study 
area. Ashland residents do appear the more favorable toward develop- 
ment and might well acquire other items which they desire more 
frequently than do rural residents. Coal development might well 
encourage the development of recreational facilities and shopping 



- 197 - 



facilities desirable to many town dwellers. The overall effects, 
then, to the town dwellers, while certainly not perceived as 
disasterously a9 by rural residents, probably would not be enriely 
beneficial. The long term effects of acquiring desirable development 
undoubtedly would bring on concurrently undesirable effects on 
characteristics of the social life which they enjoy. 



- 198 - 



LITERATURE CITED 



Anderson, Bob 

1973 "Water and Eastern Montana Coal Development". 
Montana Environmental Quality Council, Second 
Annual Report (October) . 

Anderson, Theodore R. and Morris Zelditch, Jr. 

1969 A Basic Course in Statistics. New York: 
Rinehart and Winston. 

Bennet, Lance, et al . 

19 74 The Study of Society. Guilford, Connecticut: 
The Dushkin Publishing Group, Inc. 

Billings Gazette 

1974 "Industry Says 'Must Use Coal'". (April 21, 
19 74) : 3, cols. 1-3. 

Billings Gazette 

1974 "West's Coal is Key to Giant Plans". (May 5, 
19 74) : 11, cols. 1-6. 

Billings Gazette 

19 74 "U.S. Will Test Resistance to Coal 'Sacrifice 
Area'". (May 26, 19 74) 1, cols. 1-4. 

Blaylock, Hubert M. 

1960 Social Statistics. New York: McGraw-Hill. 

Blood, Robert 0. 

1972 The Family. New York: The Free Press. 

Bogue, Donald 

1969 Principles of Demography. New York: Wiley. 

Branscome, James 

1971 "Stripping For Pleasure and Profit". Commonweal 
95 (December 3) : 229-231. 



- 199 - 



Brown, Alfred J. and Howard M. Sherrard 

1969 "An Introduction to Town and Country Planning". 
Second edition, American Elsevier (New York). 

Bureau of Land Management and United States Forest Service 
19 72 Summary, Decker-Birney Resource Study. 

Caudill, Harry M. 

1962 Night Comes To The Cumberlands. Boston: Little, 
Brown and Company. 

1971a Dark Hills To Westward. Boston: Little, Brown 
and Company . 

1971b My Land Is Dying. New York: E. P. Dutton and 
Company, Inc. 

Clayton, Richard R. 

1975 The Family, Marriage and Social Change. 

Lexington, Massachusetts: D. C. Heath and Co. 

Costantini, Edmund and Kenneth Hauf 

1971 "Environmental Concern and Political Elites: 
A Study of Perceptions, Backgrounds, and 
Attitudes". Research Report- Institute of 
Governmental Affairs. Davis: University of 
California. 



1965 "Criteria for Measures of Association. 



Costner, Herbert L. 

Americarsociological Review (June): 341-353. 

Cummings, Elaine 



1968 



Systems of Social Regulation. New York: Atherton. 



Dixon, W. J. (Ed.) 

19 73 "Biomedical Computer Programs". Health Sconces 

Computing Facility, Department of Biomathematics , 
School of Medicine, University of California. 
Los Angeles: University of California Press. 



- 200 - 



Dixon, W. J. 
19 75 



(Ed.) 



"Biomedical Computer Programs - BMDP". Health 
Sciences Computing Facility, Department of 
Biomathematics , School of Medicine, University 
of California. Los Angeles: University of 
California Press. 



Energy Planning Division, Montana State Department of Natural 
Resources and Conservation 



19 74 



Draft Impact Statement on Colstrip Electric 
Generating Units 3 and 4, 500 kilovolt Trans- 
mission Lines and Associated Facilities. 
Volume 1, summary. 



Erlanson, Charles B. 



196 3 

Eshlenan, J. 
1974 



Battle of the Butte. Billings, Montana 
Reporter Printing and Supply Company. 



Ross 



Gill, Thomas J. 
19 72 



The Family: An Introduction. Boston: Allyn 
and Bacon, Inc. 



"Coal Development Potential in Eastern Montana". 
Montana Environmental Quality Council, First 



Annual Report (October) 



Gold, Raymond L. 



1974 



"A Comparative Case Study of the Impact of 
Coal Development on the Way of Life of People 
in the Coal Areas of Eastern Montana and North- 
eastern Wyoming. Final report. Institute for 
Social Science Research. Missoula, Montana: 
University of Montana. 



Harriss , C. Lowell 



19 74 

Haw ley, Amos 
19 50 



The Good Earth of America. Englewood Cliffs, 
New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. 



Human Ecology. New York: Ronald. 



- 201 - 



Hobbs , Donald A. and Stuart J. Blank 

19 75 Sociology and the Human Experience. New York: 
John Wiley and Sons, Inc. 

Jonas, Frank H. (Ed.) 

1969 Politics in the West. Salt Lake City: 
University of Utah Press. 

Josephy, Jr., Alvin M. 

19 73 "Agony of the Northern Plains". Audubon 75 (4) 
68-101. 

Kraenzel, Carl F. 

1955 The Great Plains in Transition. Norman, 
Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press. 

1964 "Adaptations for Successful Living in the 
American Semi-arid and Arid West". Paper 
presented to the American Association for the 
Advancement of Science. 

Kraenzel, Carl F. and Anna Zellick 

1966 "Aging in the Rural Area of Montana". Third 
Progress Report on Project #PH108-66-33. 

Leopold, Aldo 

1949 Sand County Almanac. New York: Oxford 
University Press. 

Lippincott, Benjamin E. 

19 38 Victorian Critics of Democracy. London: 
Oxford University Press. 

Lundberg, George A. 

1961 Can Science Save Us? New York: David 
McKay Company, Inc. 

Lundberg, George A., Clarence C. Schr&g, Otto N. Larsen, and 
William R. Catton, Jr. 

1963 Sociology. New York: Harper Row. 

Lynd, Robert S. 

19 39 Knowledge For What? Princeton, New Jersey: 
Princeton. 



- 202 - 



MacCannell, Earl H. and C. Jack Gilchrist 

1973 Selected Characteristics of Montana Population 
1960-1970 (May 1973). 

Matras , Judah 

19 75 Social Inequality, Stratification, and Mobility. 
Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc. 

Matson, Robert E. 

1974 Montana Bureau of Mines' Unpublished Open File 
Report. 

Montana Coal Task Force 

19 73 Coal Development in Eastern Montana: A Situation 
Report. 

Montana Department of Health and Environmental Sciences, Health 
Education Bureau 

19 73 Comprehensive Health Planning Paper 
(Mimeographed) . 

Montana Department of Planning and Economic Development 

19 70 Montana Data Book. Billings, Montana: Reporter 
Printing and Supply Company. 

Montana Energy Advisory Council 

19 74 Coal Development Information Packet. 

Mueller, John H. , Karl F. Schuessler and Herbert L. Costner 

1970 Statistical Reasoning in Sociology (second 
edition). Boston: Houghton. 

Muller, Kit, Pat Sweeney and Steve Charter 

19 72 Northern Plains Resource Council - Purpose and 
Direction (Mimeographed) . 

Newsweek 

1972 "A Battle Looms Over a Vast, New Coal Hoard". 

Newsweek 80 (October 9, 1972): 80-82. 

Nie, Norman H., Dale H. Bent and C. Hadlai Hull 

19 70 Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. 

New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. 



- 203 - 



North Central Power Study Coordinating Committee 

1971 Study of minemouth thermal power plants with 
extra-high voltage transmission for delivery 
of power to load centers. Volume 1. 

Northern Plains Resource Council 

19 74 Birney Decker Fact Sheet (Mimeographed) . 

Nye, F. Ivan and Felix M. Bernardo 

1973 The Family: Its Structure and Interaction. 
New York: Macmillan Co. 

Overall, John Ernest and C. James Klett 

19 72 Applied Multivariate Analysis. New York: 
McGraw Hill Book Co., Inc. 

Parson, Ruben L. 

1972 Conserving American Resources. Englewood 
Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc. 

Perry , John and Erma 

1973 The Social Webb. San Francisco, California: 
Canfield Press. 

Phillips, James G. 

1974 Environmentalists, Utilities Argue Over East, 
West Mining. Government Research Corporation 
National Journal Reports. Coal II: East- 
West Dispute Report 1014. 

Pollak, Otto 

1967 "The Outlook for the American Family". Journal 

of Marriage and The Family 29 (February) : 
19 3-206. 

Popenoe, David 

19 74 Sociology. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: 

Prentice-Hall, Inc. 

Powder River County Extension Homemakers Council 

1967 Echoing Footsteps. Butte, Montana: Ashton 

Printing and Engraving Company. 



- 204 - 



Reily, William K. 

19 73 The Use of Land: A Citizen's Policy Guide to 

Urban Growth. A Task Force Report sponsored 
by the Rockefeller Brothers Foundation, New 
York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co. 

Rogers, Everett M. 

1960 Social Change in Rural Sociology. New York: 

Appleton-Century Crofts, Inc. 

Schneider, Bill 

1973 "The Big Sacrifice". Montana Outdoors 4(1), 

12-19. 

Schilling, Charles L. 

1971 "Attitudes Toward Outdoor Recreation and 

Forestry, Adoption of Forestry Practices, and 
Selected Characteristics of Non-corporate 
Owners of Large Forest Tracts in East Texas". 
Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. Texas A & M 
University . 

Sites, Paul 

19 75 Control and Constraint. New York: Macmillan. 

Stoddart, Laurence A. and Arthur D. Smith 

1955 Range Management. New York: McGraw-Hill Book 

Company, Inc. 

Toole, Ross K. 

19 59 Montana, An Uncommon Land. Norman: University 

of Oklahoma Press. 

United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census 

1970 1970 Census of Population: Characteristics of 

the Population-Montana. Volume 1, Part 28. 

United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation 
19 72 Appraisal Report on Montana-Wyoming Aqueducts. 

U.S. News and World Report 

19 72 "Battle Over Mining that Scars the Land". 

U.S. News and World Report 73 (September 25): 
76-78. 



- 205 - 



Walcheck, Ken 

1973 "The Second Battle of the Rosebud and a Few 
More Upcoming Historic Events". Montana 
Outdoors 4(4) : 15-19. 

Westinghouse Electric Company, Environmental Systems Division 

19 73 Colstrip Generation and Transmission Project - 
Applicants Environmental Analysis. 



- 206 - 



APPENDIX A 



QUESTIONNAIRE AND RESPONSES 

Note: The absolute frequency and relative frequency Percent 
are displayed b eside each possible response for each question. The 
categor^A. or no answer was not a category used on the questionnaire. 
The c ategory N.A. has been displayed for analytic purposes only. 

We now have several specific questions concerning how you feel 
about this area. Please state whether you Strongly Agree Agree, 
Are Neutral, Disagree, or Strongly Disagree with each of the following 
statements. 

1. This part of Montana has lust about everything that is necessary 
for a happy life. 

25.9% 
57.97 

5.4% 

10.0% 

.8% 



Of all the places I have lived, this part of Montana is the most 
desirable. 

22.0% 
42.5% 
18.5% 
14.3% 
1.9% 
.8% 

I would rather pay high taxes and live in this a ea than pay lower 
taxes and live somewhere else. 

4.6% 
45.9% 
22. 4% 
23.0% 

3.1% 

2.0% 



1. 


Strongly Agree 


67 


2. 


Agree 


50 


3. 


Neutral 


14 


4. 


Disagree 


26 


s. 


Strongly Disagree 


2 


6. 


No Answer 






1. 


Strongly Agree 


57 


2. 


Agree 


110 


3. 


Neutral 


48 


/.. 


Disagree 


37 


5. 


Strongly Disagree 


s 


ft. 


No Answer 


2 



1. 


Strongly Agree 


12 


?.. 


Agree 


110 


3. 


Neutral 


58 


4. 


Disagree 


57 


5. 


Strongly Disagree 


8 


ft . 


No Answer 


5 



- 207 - 



With proper planning, I do not think nn increase in population 
wj l i negatively affect thin area. 

2.1% 
1+2.9$ 



5. We have an excellent school system at this time, 



1 . 


Strongly Agree 


7 


:'. 


A ;ree 


88 


3. 


Neutral 


Ik 


h. 


Disagree 


111 


5. 


Strongly Disagree 


30 


u. 


No Answer 


1 



1. 


Strongly Agree 




n 


k.2% 


:■. 


Agree 




118 


h5.G% 


3. 


Neutral 




U8 


18.5* 


»t. 


Disagree 




58 


22. 1*# 




Strongly Disagn 


■e 


15 


5-8% 


6. 


No Answer 




9 


3-5$ 


Sh> 


Dpping facilities 


in 


this 


area are adequate 


1. 


Strongly Agree 




7 


2.1% 


.:. 


Agree 




92 


35.5% 


.. 


Neutral 




15 


5.8^ 


It. 


Disagree 




12U 


^T-9% 


c >- 


Strongly Disagree 


21 


8.1"/ 


6. 


No Answer 











7. The quality of road construction and maintenance is very high 
in this area. 



i . 


Strongly Agree 


5 


1.9% 


2 . 


Agree 


U2 


16.2JS 


3. 


tral 


28 


10.8J8 


U. 




150 


57 • 9$ 




Strongly Disagree 


V: 


12.05? 


... 


No Answer 


3 


1.2$ 



''">. This i s a very safe place to live. 



1 . 


Strongly A - 


58 


22.14 


. 


Agree 


lU8 


57-lJS 


3. 


Neutral 


20 


7-7$ 


Ik 


■ 


;. 


12.k% 


5- 


Strongly D i 








6. 


No Answer 


1 


M 



- 208 - 



9. Traffic has become a real problem in this area. 

1. Strongly Agree ^ 

2. Agree 33 12 '^'° 

Mitral 18 6.9% 

U. Disa, 18U 71. 055 

Strongly Disagree 2^ 2.3% 

6. No Ann. 

10. My living conditions here leave a lot to be desired. 

1. Strongly Agree 3 1.2% 

2. Agree 58 22.^% 

3. Neutral 17 6.6a 
k. Disagree 136 52.5/' 

5. Strongly Disagree UU YJ > '^° 

6. No Answer 1 -^ '" 

11. Police protection in this area is of high caliber. 

1. Strongly Agree 6 2.3% 

2. Agree 73 28. 2* 

3. Neutral ^3 l6 - 6 £ 
h. Disagree 106 ^0.9/» 

5. Strongly Disagree l6 6.2/» 

6. No Answer 15 5-8% 

12. More outdoor recreational facilities would be desirable, 

1. Strongly Agree 7 2.1% 

2. Agree 95 36.7$ 

3. Neutral 19 7.3% 
U. Disagree 109 **2.lJ 

5, str i :ly Disagree 26 10.0/o 

6. No Ansv 3 1.2/» 



13. More indoor recreational facilities would be desirable. 
1 . Strongly Agree ] 5 5. 



117 ^5-2% 

Neutral 23 8.9$ 

87 33.6% 

5. Strongly Dis; ..■ ■ 15 5-8/<> 

6. I. (Vnsver 2 .8% 






209 - 



lit. This area has excellent health and medical care. 

1 . Strongly Agree 5 1-9$ 

2. Ar.rec 57 22.0$ 

3. Neutral 21 8.1$ 
14. Diaagri 138 53.3$ 

5. Strongly Disagree 35 13-5$ 

6. No Answer 3 1.2$ 

15. More sex education in the schools is unnecessary. 
1. Strongly Agree 13 5-0/ 






2. Agree 85 32. 

3. Neutral 86 33-2$ 
h. Disagree 57 
5. Strongly Disagree 



6 2.3$ 



6. No Answer 12 k.&% 

16. An adult education program would be useful, 
1. Strongly Agree 13 5< 



' 



2. Agree 137 52.3$ 

3 



Neutral 36 13 

h. Disagree 68 26.3$ 

5. Strongly Disagree 3 1-2$ 

6. No Answer 2 .8$ 

IT. This area needs a more fully developed health program. 

1. Strongly Agree 13 5.0/« 

2. Agree 133 51. W 

3. Neutral 3*4 13.1$ 
k. Disagree 7 1 * 28.6$ 

5. Strongly Disagree *4 L.5$ 

6. No Answer 1 -^ 

18. There are not enough job opportunities for young people in this 

area. 



1 



y Agree 15 

2. A,",r 
'•$. Neutral 

U. Disagree 79 30.5$ 

;y Disagree 17 6.6$ 



13U 57.7 
12 U.6$ 



5 



6. No Answer 2 



- 210 - 



19. Additional counseling services in this area would be useful, 



. 



i . 


Strongly Agree 


5 


1.9% 


,'. 




111 


U2.9$ 


3. 


Neutral 


33 


12.736 


k. 


Disagn e 


98 


37.8$ 


5. 


Strongly Disagree 


10 


3-9^ 


... 


No Answer 


2 


.8JJ 



Senior citizens have adequate facilities in this area, 



1 . 


Strongly Agree 


12 


h.6% 


( • 


Agree 




35- 9$ 


3. 


Neu1 


17 


6.6% 


)i. 


Disagree 


117 


U5 .2% 




Strongly Disagree 


16 


6.2% 


6. 


No Answer 


h 


1.5% 



21. This is a good place to bring up children. 



] . 


Strongly Agree 


99 


38.9$ 


2. 


Agree 


118 


1+5-6$ 


3. 


Neutral 


18 


6.9$ 


!. . 


Disagree 


20 


7-7$ 


5- 


Strongly Disagree 


2 


.2% 




No Answer 


2 


.8$ 



s would be a better place if more minorities lived here. 





; 


Strongly Agree 




2 


a " 

. Ojo 




2 


Agree 




L8 


u.--; 




3 


Neutral 




51 


19-7? 




h 


Disa : 




1H5 


56.0$ 




5 


Stroi ' r ree 


19 


15.1$ 




6 


1 




U 


1.5$ 


. 


) ubl ic h Lng in not 


a probl 


em her 




i 


Si n >ng l.y Agree 




9 


3-5$ 




' > 


Agree 




109 


U2.1$ 




3 


Neutral 




16 


6.2$ 




1 


D:i sagn 'O 




110 


U2.5$ 




5 


ngly Disagi 


•ee 


13 


5-0$ 




6 


No Answer 




P 


.8$ 



- 211 - 



2h . People who live around 


here 


are more helpful than they are in 


mor 


aces. 








Strongly Agree 


81 


31.3$ 


2. 


' 


136 


52.5$ 


', ■ 


Neutral 


21 


8.1$ 


h. 


Disa 


18 


6.9$ 


■■ 


Strongly Disagree 


I 


M 


6. 


No Answer 


2 


.8$ 


25- 


s area is getting too crowded. 


1 . 


Strongly A- 


5 


1.9$ 


> 
< * 


Agree 


C5 


23.1% 


3. 


Neutral 


•;i 


12.0$ 


!;. 


Disagree 


1U8 


51.1% 


5- 


Strongly Disagree 


7 


2.7$ 


6. 


No Answer 


3 


\.2% 



26. The scenic resources of this area are being destroyed as the 
:■• suit of a variety of factors. 

2.1% 
31.3$ 

8. if. 
53.1% 

3.1$ 

1.2$ 



1. 


Strongly Agree 


7 


2. 


Agree 


81 


3. 


Neutral 


21 


k. 


Disagree 


139 


r -. 


Strongly Disagree 


8 




No Answer 


3 



27 



ndustria] interests in this area are too powerful, 



) . 


Strongly /■ 




38 


l'l. 1% 


2. 


■ 




V, 


3U.W 


'> • 


!.'• utral 




21 


8.1$ 


,. 


Disa 




105 


Ho. 5$ 


5- 


Strongly Disagj 




U 


1.5$ 


6. 


No At. v. r 




2 


.8$ 



There is not enough highway and other construction around here, 



i 


Sir 


9 


3.5$ 


'"1 
t 


A;' 


96 


37.1$ 


1 


Neu1 


-;; 


12.0$ 


li 


D i 


106 


1(0.9$ 


5 


Str ■. ;■ I 


15 


5-8$ 


>' 


:. . rtswer 


2 


. 0/« 



- 212 



I. Something should be done to stop population growth in the U. S 

as soon as possible, 

1. S1 ' : ",'ly Agree 2h 9.3% 

2. Agree 102 39. W 

3. Neutral 68 26. 3% 
U. Disagree 58 22. h% 
<;, 51 r mgly Disagree 2 .8% 
6. Ho Answer 5 1-9$ 



30. 



Population growth in this area presents no problem. 

1. Strongly Agree 5 l-9/» 

2. Agree l6T 6*4 . 5$ 

3. Neutral 1^ 5- '4 
It. Disagree 63 2U.3% 

5. Strongly Disagree 10 3-9% 

6. No Answer 

The following ideas regarding this area have been presented at 
.. time or another. Please indicate how you feel about proposals re- 
lating to these ideas. 

31. A system of paved roads into and out of this area. 
1. Strongly Agree ^3 l6.6# 



:■'. 



;-' 



Agree ll 1 * ^-0j 

Neutral l6 6.2% 

Disagree 63 2U . 3/^ 

Strongly Disagree 21 8.1$ 



6. No Answer 2 

52. M -atorium on all and any coal-related building in this area. 



. 


, y Agree 












..' , ;■ ree 










-;. 


Neu1 










. 


Di sagree 










5. 


St r mgly Di 
No Answer 


*ee 




f) 







33. Creating of aclditiona] wilderness areas near here 

1 , Strong ; y ' ;ree 11 '*• 2% 

2, Agr 67 25. 9% 



;. ii ral 39 15,1: r , 

Disagr< 117 ^$.2% 



213 - 



5. Stri ii • ly Da sag] ee 23 8.9% 
(■. No Answer 2 .8% 

3'j, Concentrating future building in a small number of more urban- 
ized areas and limiting additional development elsewhere. 



1. 


Strong!; 


21 


8.1JJ 


2. 


A ;ree 


126 


U8.6JS 


5. 


Neutral 


hi 


18.1JS 


h. 


Disagr< 1 : 


52 


20.1J6 


5. 


Strongly Disagree 


), 


1-5% 




No Answi r 


9 


3.5% 



Requiring builders to dedicate for public use a prescribed number 
of acres. 



] . 


Strongly Agree 


26 


10.0JS 





Ag>ri 1 ■ 


113 


»«3.6* 


■-) 


Neut \ 


-■( 


ll*.33K 


!.. 


;ree 


70 


27 . 0% 


5. 


Strongly A| 


" 


3.5% 


6. 


No Answer 


! , 


6.5% 



36. Cl ; additional lands to snowmobile and trailbikes. 



: . 


Strongly Agree 


■1 7 


6.6$ 


2. 


;ree 


77 


■;'•>.'(■: 


; ;. 


Neutral 


v\ 


20.85s 


k. 


vjree 


9^ 


36.3% 


5. 


Strongly Agree 


13 


5.0% 




No Answer 


I) 


1.5Ji 



How would you feel about a moratorium for a limited time on: 

37- Furthi f leasing of state and federal coal lands to energy 
com pi 



! . 


Strongl. 


82 


31.1% 


. 


'■■ r .ri 


80 


30.9% 


5. 


. . ' r: 


1*5 


lT.fc* 


. 


D i s : 1 




16. C% 




S1 '■' mgly D i 


7 


2.1% 


6. 


No Answer 


2 


.8% 



- 214 - 



38. 



more power 


planti 


3 In this area. 


1 . Str ngly Agree 




90 


3't,7? 


2. Agree 




814 


32.'n% 


3. Neutra] 




30 


11.6? 


U. Disagree 




J.:-; 


18.5/2 


5. Strongly Disagr 


ee 


6 


2.3% 


6. No Answer 




1 


.1** 



development of new strip mines in this area. 



1. 


Strongly Agree 


87 


33.6% 


2. 


Agree 


82 


31.7? 


3. 


Neutral 


38 


lk.1% 


14. 


Disagree 


It 3 


16.6% 


>- 


Strongly Disagree 


8 


3.1? 


',. 


No Answer 


] 


.It? 



kO. Additional railroads, power lines or pipe lines associated 
with coal development. 



1. 


Strongly Agree 


86 


33-2? 


2. 


Agree 


78 


30.1? 


3- 


Neutral 


-;o 


15-1? 


k. 


Disagree 


1*7 


18. t, 


5. 


Strongly Disagree 


7 


2.7? 


6. 


No Answer 


2 


.8% 



ill. Even when carefully controlled industrialization is likely to 
a community. 



1 . 


ngly A, 


5U 


20.8%' 


'"■> 

C- - 




160 


61.8? 


3- 


Neutral 


i: j 


14.6% 


h. 


. 


27 


10. u? 


>■ 




2 


.8% 


... 


No Answer 


It 


1.5? 



Man should use scientific knowledge to deal with problems 
lever and wherev. r | 'ssible. 



J . 


ngly A 


liO 


15- ! >? 


2. 




176 


68 . of, 


-;. 


Meu1 


20 


7.7? 




] i :■;; -; • ■ 


. 


7.7? 


'>■ 


Strongly Disn 


1 


.It? 


. 


No An 


2 


.8% 



- 215 - 



)(3. 



Uit . 



l»5< 



1.6. 



e professional planner; 
meni in Montana. 



1. Strongly Agree 

2. Agree 

3. Neutral 

It . Disagree 

5. Strongly Disagree 

6. No Answer 



1] 
57 

.■"1 

1U6 

13 

5 



should net be involved with develop- 

U.2% 
22.0% 

10. U* 
56. U* 

5.0* 

1-9* 



Federal professional planners should not be involved with 
development in Montana. 



1. Strongly Agree 

2. Agrei 

3. Neutral 

)i . Disagree 

c ., . Strongly Disagree 

6. No Answer 



31 

119 

20 

75 

9 
r - 



12. of, 

7.7* 
29-0$ 

3-5^ 
1.9* 



If there is going to be additional development around here, 
individual communities rather than State or Federal governments 
should control and conduct it. 



1. 
2. 
3. 

h. 
5- 

f'.. 



Strongly Agree 29 i:L * 2 ^ 

Agree 13 1 * 51-7% 

32 12. UJ 

ree 56 21, °^ 

Strongly Disagree 3 1-2* 

Answer 5 1-9% 



There is very little that persons like me can do to stop 
inflation. 



1 . Strongly •<" 

2. A 

3. Neutral 
li . 1 

Strongly Disagree 
6. No An. ■ 



15)+ 
17 

63 
8 
3 



5.W 
59-5* 

6.6$ 

2U.3* 
3.1% 
1.2* 



- 216 - 



50, 





Strongly Agree 


L3 


;>. 


Agree 


150 


5. 


Neut 


25 


h. 


Disagree 


63 




Strongly Disagree 


3 


(.. 


No Answer 


5 



hi. A Lasting world peace can be achieved by those of us who work 
towards it. 

5. Of. 
57.9% 

1.1% 
2k . 3% 

1.2* 

1.9* 

Thi: -rorld is run by the few people in power and there is not 
much a person like me can do about it. 

3-5% 
39 M 

8.5* 
hk.U% 

2.1% 

1.2* 

ho. Not much information concerning mining and related developments 
is being made available to the general public. 

1. Strongly Agree l6 6.2% 

2. Agree 10H U0.2* 

3. Neutral 2h 9-1% 
k. Disagree 101 39- Op 

5. Strongly Disagree 9 3-5* 

6. No Answer 5 1-9* 



1. 


Strongly Agree 


9 


.'. 


Agree 


103 


•;. 


Neutral 


22 


it. 


Disagree 


115 


5. 


Strongly Agree 


7 


... 


No Answer 


■i 



Since the Nixon administration is pushing very hard for energy 
self-sufficiency by 1930, Montana coal should be mined. 



1. Strongly Agree 10 3.h% 

;g 100 38.6? 

3. Neutral 37 lU.3* 

U. Disagree 29.3* 

r,. ; ■ , ■ , r-ee 12. U* 

6. No Answer l > 1-5* 



- 217 - 



M 



52, 



53. 



The choice for strip mining in agricultural areas means there 
will be less food production Loth now and in the future. 



1 . 


Strongly Agree 


31* 


13.1% 


?.. 


Agree 


115 


Ui*.l+5S 


•1. 


Neutral 


21 


8.135 


h. 


Disagree 


77 


29.1% 


'■■ 


Strongly Disagree 


6 


2.3% 


*'.. 


Ni i Answer 


6 


2.3% 



As badly as we need new industry and jobs, we cannot afford to 
sacrifice our clean air and agricultural land to attain them. 



1. 


Strongly Agree 


hi 


18.135 


2. 


Agree 


ll»2 


5^.8% 




Neutral 


26 


10.035 


It. 


Disagree 


39 


15-135 


5- 


Strongly Disagree 


2 


.835 


... 


No Answer 


3 


1.235 



Industries should be forced to shut down if they fail to meet 
governmental pollution standards. 



1 . 


Strongly Agree 


nr, 


25.5%" 


2. 


Agree 


168 


Gh . 9% 


3. 


Neutral 


11 


k.2% 


l». 


Disagree 


Ik 


5M> 


5. 


Strongly Disagree 








6. 


No Answer 









One person's right to a clean environment 
as another's right to gainful employment. 



is not as important 



] . 


Strongly Agree 


6 


2.3% 


. 


Agree 


It It 


17.0% 


3. 


Neul 


■ -; 


20.5% 


It. 


Di so 


nit 


ltlt.0% 


r 


Strongly Disagree 


29 


11 . 2% 




No Answer 


10 


5.0% 



- 218 - 



55. None of us has the right to interfere vith the nation's need 
for western coal. 



1 . 


Strongly Agree 


2 


.8% 


,'. 




29 


11 . 2% 


3. 


Neu t 


28 


10.8$ 


k. 


Disagri :e 


lVf 


56.8% 


5. 


Strongly Disagree 


^9 


18 . 9% 


6. 


No Answer 


ii 


1.5% 



56. V.T-iere natural resources are privately owned, neither neighbors 
nor government should have any say over how the natural 
resources are used. 



1 . 


Strongly Agree 


36 


13.95? 




Agree 


119 


^5-9% 


3. 


Neutral 


2] 


8.1% 


k. 


Disagree 


68 


26.3% 


5- 


Strongly Disagree 


in 


3.9% 


6. 


No Answer 


5 


1.9% 



57. More and more I feel helpless in the face of what is happening 
in the world today. 



1 . 


Strongly Agree 


12 


k.6% 


. . 


Agree 


155 


59-8% 


.. 


Neutral 


: : . 


8.9% 


k. 


Diss 


63 


2U.3/5 


r "<. 


Strongly Disagree 


3 


1.2% 


'■.. 


No Answer 


3 


1.2% 



58. In general, I am satisfied vith my situation in life, 



] . 


Strongly A 


53 


12.7% 


. 


Agree 


183 


70. 7^ 


-;. 


Neutra 1 


S 


3.1% 


1*. 


Disa, 


32 





5. 


St re-: gree 


2 





6. 


No Answer 


1 


.k% 



One of the most critical issues in this area involves coal 
development. The following questions deal with area-wide planning, 
which would involve coordination of necessary services with develop- 
ment. 1 ].■• also would involve the decision to develop or not to 
1 /e lop. 



- 219 - 



5 . As far as you know, lias there been any community or area-wide 
planning in this an . 

1. Yes 98 37.8$ 

2. No 158 61.05S (Skip to response No. Gh ) 

3. No Answer 3 1.2/5 

60. How did you find out about these efforts? 

1. Direct participation 1*3 

2. Friend, relative or acquaintance 37 

3. Newspaper or magazine 29 
h. Radio or television 13 

5. Other (specify) 11 

6. Formal contact 5 

61. When did the earliest planning occur, that you heard of? 

1. During the past year 28 10.0/? 

2. Two or three years ago 58 22. U/S 

3. Four of five years ago 6 2.3$ 
h. Over five years ago k 1-5$ 
5- No Answer . l63 62.9$ 

62. Who or what organization ( s ) was responsible for the planning? 

1. BLM and USFS 32 12.1+$ 

2. Tri County Ranchers Association h 1.5$ 

3. Rosebud County Planning Board 12 k.6% 
h. County Commissioners 1 ,h% 
5- Northern Cheyenne Indian Tribe 7 2.7$ 

6. Concerned Citizens 8 3.1$ 

7. Northern Plains Resource Council 5 1-9$ 

8. Coal Companies 6 2.3$ 

9. Big Horn County Planning Board 2 .8$ 

10. State of Montana 6 2.3$ 

11. Montana Dakota Utility 1 .k% 

12. taster conomic Development Council 1 .U% 

63. As far as ;. . know, ha; any result occurred from the planning? 

1. Yes 1+7 18.1$ 

2. '. 1+7 18.1$ 

3. No Answer ] 65 63 



- 220 - 



e that pr ,f ssional planners wanted to get involved with 
plan, Lrea, h . • uld you feel about this idea? How do you 
l£2 . ■ IV (Nolo: If respondent answers self with 

,. or Agree go to response 68, if respondent answers self 
cee or Strongly Disagree go to response fl.) 



6)). Self 



9-1% 



66. 



1 . Strongly Agree <■ > 

?. Agree 88 3^.0% 

3. Neutral 62 23. 9^ 

li. Disagree ''■'"' l6- ^ 

5. Strongly Disagree 37 i1k3 ^ 

6. No Answer 5 1*9% 



' 



65. Your best friends 



1. 


Strongly Agree 


2. 


Agree 


3- 


Neutral 


li. 


Disagree 


5- 


Strongly Disagree 


... 


No Answer 



L5 


5.8$ 


U6 


17 . Q% 


V 


21 Mo 


'•7 


18. If, 


30 


11.651 


50 


19-32 



The powerful and influential people in this area, i.e., 
businessmen, politicans, large ranchers. 

] . ly Agr 12 ^.6% 
?. ; ■ 52 20. 1% 

; . 59 22. 8£ 



It. Disagn • 58 22 '^'° d 

•>. Strongly Disagree 27 10 

C. No Answer 51 19-7/" 

67. Most people in this area. 



. 


Strongly Agree 


,'. 


; -.-, , 


■;. 


• ro 1 


!|. 


• 


'.. 


Str< ; i ..'•'•" 




No An ■ • : 



10 


3-9% 


I46 


hm 


73 


28. 2f 


70 


27.05. 


?A 


10. Of 


Ik 


13.1* 



- 221 - 



(~ir respondent has indicated suppor t of scientific help for 
planning) (if not, go to response 71) 

68. If opposition to comprehensive planning of this area developed, 
would you do anything to support the planning? 

(Go to question 76) 



1. 


Yes 


> 


23-9$ 


?. 


Unceri a i n 


1+8 


18.55S 


3. 


No Answer 


lhO 


5 ! '.l# 



69. If YES, what one or two things would you most likely do? 

1. Call or write or talk to someone involved with the planning 

50 

2. County Agent 5 

3. Other County Official 6 
k. State legislator 11 

5. Governor 3 

6. Federal legislator 6 

7. Other federal official 1 

8 . Lawyer 3 

9. Other (specify) 3 

70. Why would you do each of these things? 

1. I anticipate it would be effective to do this 

2. Past favor 

3. Friendship or acquaintance 
U. Direct relevance to problem 
5- Other 
6. No Answer 

(If respondent has indicated neutrality or opposition to com- 
prehensive community planning) 

71. You indicated before that you do not favor comprehensive area- 
wide planning. How, are you likely to actively oppose such a 



(Go to question 76) 
(Go to question 76) 



20 


7-7$ 








2 


M 


37 


1U.3# 


3 


1.25? 


197 


76.1$ 



pro;-- 






L. Yon 


35 


13.5* 


Uneorl •> 1 n 


;u 


28 . 6% 


"->. '. 


p6 


' 


U . No Answer 


12)1 


hi. 9% 



- 222 - 



72. 



If YES, who would you most likely call, write or talk to involved 
h the plannin '. 

k 



1 . County 

Other county official 

3. State Legislator 

U . G( vernor 

5. Federal legislator 

6. Other federal official 

7 . j 

8. Other (specify) 

9. No answer 



It 

12 

3 

2 

1 

.-; 

5 

225 



1.5* 
1.5* 
U.6* 
1.2* 

.8* 
M 

1.2* 
1.9* 

86 . 9* 



13 


5.0* 














20 


7.7* 








226 


87 . 3* 



73. Why would you do each of these things' 

1. Anticipated effectiveness 

2. Past favor 

3. Friendship of acquaintance 
U. Direct relevance to problem 

5. Other 

6. No answer 

The following questions concern establishing comprehensive area- 
widG planning. Please assume that the planning would be established 
scientists who are experts in such matters. 

How would you feel about establishing a comprehensive community 
plan in those parts of the county where growth seems to be a serious 
problem? 

1. Strongly favor 

2. Favor 

3. Undecided, neutral 
h. Oppose 

5. Strongly oppose 

6. No answer 



7»» 



Self 



L. 


. 1 


2. 


Favor 


3. 


1 cided, neutral 


I.. 


■ 


5- 


Strong 1} 


• . 


No answer 



U 


1.5* 


L2 


k.6% 


7 


2.7* 


'j 


i .9* 


5 


1.9* 


226 


87 . 3* 



- 223 - 



75. 



Your b( . t fr Lends 






1. Strongly favor 


1 


.1*% 


?. Favor 


10 


3,9% 


3. Undecided, neui r 


13 


k.2% 


U. Oppose 


k 


1.5% 


5. Stroncly oppose 


3 


1.2% 


6. No answer 


230 


88.835 



76. Some of the more powerful of influential people around here 

1. Strongly favor 1 .U% 

2. Favor 9 3-5% 

3. Undecided, neutral 9 3-5% 
h. Oppose 3 1.2% 

5. Strongly oppose 3 1.2% 

6. No answer 23U 90.3% 

77. Most people in this area 



1. 


Strongly favor 


1 


.!»* 


?. 


I<';. .' or 


10 


3.9% 


3. 


Undecided, neutral 


8 


3.1% 


h. 


Oppose 


5 


1.9% 


5- 


Strongly oppose 


2 


.8% 


6. 


No answer 


233 


90.0% 



78. If scientists wanted to develop a comprehensive plan in this area 
how likely would you be to sign a petition opposing the plan? 

1. Definitely sign 19 7-3% 

2. Probably sign 26 10.0% 

3. Uncertain 119 ^5-9% 
U. Probably not sign 72 27-8% 

5. Definitely not sign 18 6.9% 

6. No answer 5 1.9% 

79. If residents in this area were to vote on whether a comprehensive 
i [an should be adopted, how do you think you would vote? 

.1 . For plan 70 27.0% 

?. U ptain 137 52.9% 

3. Against plan 35 13-5% 

h. Vi'i bably would not vote 13 5-0% 

5. No answer h 1.5% 



- 224 - 



80 Who do you think win primarily make the final decision whether 
a comprehensive community plan will he adopted in this area. 



1. Local reside] 3^ 13-1% 

2. Scientific ad 1 -^ 

3. Local goverm: 13 5-0/* 
It. State government 22 8.5a 

5. Federal government h( lo.l/o 

6. State and federal government 97 3T>5 ^ 

7. Other (specify) 5 1-9% 

8. Don't know 37 lu.3% 

9. No answer 3 1-2% 

81. Who do you think should primarily make such a decision? 

1. Local residents l6l ^ 2 ' 2 J° 

2. Scientific advisors h 1-5% 

3. Local government 21 8.1% 
k. State government 17 ° 

5. Federal government, 3 1-2% 

6. State and federal government l6 6.2% 

7. Other (specify) 5 1-9% 

8. Don't know 17 6.6/. 

9. Federal, state and local 

government H Z 

10. No answer ^ 1.57° 

82. If a comprehensive plan were developed, would it most likely be 

of economic benefit or harm to you, or would it probably make 
no difference'.' 



1. Benefit 
2 



U6 17 



Harm *8 if. 5 J 

3. Make no difference 89 3 1 * .U% 
h 
5. No answer 



1't know 75 29.0^ 

1 .h% 



Who should b< • ■ ■ determine whether or not stripped land 
has been truly reelaii 

1 . An ap] 

1 Lke the De] ; '' 

Natural ircos 22 8.5* 

2. An appropriate 1 

b ;ency 1 ike the Department 

of Agr Lculture 7 2. I ,« 



- 225 - 



It, 



6, 



7. 



rv, which does 
the reclama 

A specially qualified croup 
of Montana agricultural ex- 
pert.; who would function as 
a board of reclamation re- 
view 

Other (specify) 
Residents part of qualified 
group of agricultural ex- 
perts 
No answer 



189 
5 



28 
7 



,h% 



13.0% 
1.9% 



10.8* 

2.7* 



8U. 



85. 



Would you say that you have noticed any major changes in the 
area since you first came here? 





Yes 


169 


65.3% 


2. 


No 


8U 


32.14% 


•:. 


Uncertain 


6 


2.3* 



If YES, do you feel these changes have been for the better or for 
the worse? 



1. 


Better 


80 


30.9* 


?. 


Worse 


hi 


18 . 1% 


3. 


Uncertain 


50 


19-3* 


14. 


No answer 


82 


31.7* 



Now we would like to ask you a few questions related more par- 
ticularly to strip mining and energy resource development in this area. 

86. Decisions about coal related developments should be made on 

economic grounds only; consideration need not be given to effects 
on life styles and values of people. 



1. Strongly . ; 

2. Agree 

3. Ncu 4 ■ 

k. Disagree 

5. Strongly Disaj 

6. No Answer 



2 

13 

17 

137 

88 

2 



.8* 

5.0* 

6.6* 

52.9* 

3'».0# 



- 226 - 



87. The* coal companies have no compassion for the land they are 
at; inpting to reclaim. They are doing it only because it is 
required by lav/. 



i . 

3. 

k. 
5. 
6. 



Strongly Agree 
Agree 

Neutral 
Disagree 

Strongly Disagree 
No Answer 



56 


21.6% 


125 


1*8 . 3% 


27 


10.U55 


1*0 


15.^ 


3 


1.2% 


8 


3.1% 



88. Thr- nation's need for coal is one important consideration on 
decisions to develop Montana's coal resources. 

1. Strongly Agree 16 6.2% 

2. Agree 

3 . Neutral 
It. Disagree 

5. Strongly Disagree 

6. No Answer 



169 


65.3% 


18 


6.9$ 


U3 


16.6% 


1] 


lt.2% 


2 


.8% 



89. When mineral rights agreements were originally signed by land 
owners and the federal government, there was no concept of strip 
mining, but it was assumed underground mining might be done some- 
day. Therefore, to strip mine the coal is to violate the 
original agreement between the landowners and the federal govern- 
ment. 

1 . Strongly Agree 

2 . 

3. >• ■ ' 
U. Disagree 

5. Strongly Disa 

6. No Answer 

90. Residents arc being mo.de to feel guilty for trying to save their 
live:- in the battle against the nation's alleged need for coal 

a few. 



37 


lit. 3% 


103 


39-8% 


55 


21.2% 


111* 


17-0% 


1* 


1.5% 


16 


6.2% 



ver 


c-ur. t.h<"- 11 




le 1 


1 . 


Stn 'i 


Agree 




2. 


Agree 






J. 


. 






i*. 


U ■ 






5. 


Strongly 


Di sag 


ree 


6. 


No An 







26 


10.0% 


20 


1*6.3% 


-.1 


12.0% 


60 


26.6% 


6 


2.3% 


7 


2.7% 



227 - 



91 



92. 



95. 



Too many rivers and creeks in eastern Montana will be dammed 



up 



d ue | strialization. 



33 


12.0J6 


101 


39. Of 


52 


20. If. 


63 


2k . 3% 


li 


1.5% 


8 


3.1$ 



1. Strongly Agree 

2. A ; 

3. Nov 
It. Disagree 

5. Strongly Disagree 

6. Wo Answer 

There are presently enough developed strip mines in eastern 
Montana. 

1. Strongly Agree 

7. Agree 
3. Neutral 
k . Disagree 

5. Strongly Disagree 

6. No Answer 

93. Strip mining is compatible with your views of sound land use 
management. 



k5 


17. W 


91 


35.156 


6l 


23 . 6% 


1*5 


17- W 


U 


1.5* 


13 


5. Of. 



1. 


Strongly Agree 


2. 


Agree 


-■ 


Neutral 


1*. 


Disagree 


5- 


Strongly Disagree 




No Answer 



U 


l.5f 


61) 


2U . 7f 


■so 


11 .6% 


89 


3hM 


61. 


2k. 1% 


8 


3.1% 



9U. Eastern Montana coal should be deep mined rather than strip mined. 



] . 


Strongly Agree 


2. 


Agree 


.. 


Neutral 


It. 


.'.roe 


5- 


Strongly D i 




No Answer 



8 


3. If 


75 


29 • Of 


63 


2U.3f 


5? 


31.736 




it.6f 


19 


7 • 3f 



It i; Lean 1 ; the coal Issue frankly, trustingly, 

;111(1 uninhibited , iends who hold opposing views, positions, 
or commitments ernii coal develop: 

1 . Sir 23 8.9f 

2. ,■ 112 lt3.2f 

3. Neutral 33 

U . Disagree 8l 31 . 3% 



- 228 - 



5. Strongly Disi 

6, No An. 



5 
5 



1.9% 
1.9% 



96, There is a lot of effort going on by coal, power, and construc- 
tion company officials to try to bluff, coerce, and even 
intimidate local residents into doing their bidding. 

29 11.2% 

107 Ul.3% 

52 20.1% 

50 19.3% 

6 2.3% 

15 5.8% 



] . 

2. 
3. 


Str ngly Agree 
.' 

. bral 


k. 

5. 

6. 


1 1 i sagree 

Strongly Disagree 
No Answer 



97- Ceal companies have established inroads, and beachheads in coal- 
laden land by buying or leasing key places and then developing 

re rumors and pincer movements to gain control over large 
chunks of the land for development. 



1. 


Strongly Agree 


2. 


Agree 


3. 


Neutral 


1*. 


Disagree 


5. 


Strongly Disagree 


6, 


No Answer 



21 


8.1% 


109 


1(2.1% 


58 


22.14% 


1*8 


18.5% 


3 


1.2% 


20 


7.7% 



98. La.nd condemnation threats have been issued to scare ranchers into 
giving up the fight against coal development. 

lH 5.^% 



1. 
p 

• 

14. 
5- 



Strongly Agree 
Agr< e 
Neutral 

ngly Di 
No Answer 



93 


35-9% 


59 


22.8% 


65 


25.1% 


h 


1.5% 


21* 


9.3% 



99. Water t.hat i n< ":ed for crops will be used up by the power plant 
■ >pera t, i 



f Strongly A , 

ral 

I ' i gri ■•■■ 
Strongly DJ 
No At. 



28 


10.8% 


126 


l>9.6% 


314 


13.1% 


57 


22.0% 


U 


1.5% 


10 


3.9% 



- 229 - 



100. In the long run, I am sure that area residents will be better off 
if the strip rail are developed. 



1. 

2. 


Strongly Agr< - 
Neutral 


k. 

6. 


Strongly Disagree 
No Answer 



li 


1,5% 


58 


22. U% 


ko 


15. M 


<„. 


37.1% 


M, 


20.8% 


7 


2.7% 



lU 


5.W 


111 


»)2.9% 


55 


21.2% 


58 


22.14% 


It 


1.5% 


17 


6.6% 



101. A shift in political power from the ranchers to the new mining 
industrialists is becoming evident. 

1. Strongly Agree 

2. Agree 

3. Neutral 
U. Disagree 

5. Strongly Disagree 

6. No Answer 

102. Coal development entails a sacrifice of recreational values and 
of future land use possibilities. 

1 . Strongly Agree 

2. Agree 

3 . Neutral 
k. Disagree 
5- Strongly Disagree 
6. No Answer 

103. The removal of the coal scams may cause meadows to dry up and 
springs to disappear. 



23 


8.9% 


127 


U9.0% 


28 


10.8% 


66 


25-5% 


k 


1.5% 


n 


k.2% 



1 . 


• ' 'ngly A, 


2. 


Agree 


3. 


Neutral 


h. 


DJ sagree 


5. 


Strongly Disagree 


6. 


No Answer 



56 


21.6% 


lUi 


5h.k% 


36 


13.9% 


15 


5-8% 


2 


.8% 


9 


3.5% 



- 230 - 



10U. The development of i would be one of the best things 

that ever happened in our part of the state, 

1. Strongly Agree 3 1.2% 

2. Agree 25 9,7? 

3. Neutral hi 15.8? 
1*. Disagree 105 ^0.5? 

5. Strongly Disagree 78 30.1? 

6. No Answer 7 2,7? 

105. In general, most newcomers who live in this area are: 

1 . Surprisingly friendly and 

congenial 51 19-7? 

2. Desirable neighbors 59 22,8? 

3. Socially distant from me 21 8.1? 
h. Like tourists passing 

through 16 6.2? 

5. Undersirable neighbors 9 3-5? 

6. People with whom I have little 

in common ^8 l8.5? 

7. No answer 55 21.2? 

106. Assuming that Montana is obliged to help the rest of the nation 
to meet growing energy needs, there remains the question of the 
reasonable limits of Montana's obligation. That is, how much 
coal development in Montana is enough, how much is too much? 

1. There should be no further 
development; what we have 

•r way is enou 96 37-1? 

2. Further development should 
be confined to mining and 

exporting coal 8U 32. 'i? 

3. Further development should 

onfined to mining and 

mine-mouth power generation 23 8.9? 
h. Further development 

not be restricted, but 

should I ionse 

to what the rest of the 

nation says it wants 35 13.5? 
5, No answer 21 8.1? 



- 231 - 



' 



107. V. ... to be 1 the "energy crisis" is; 

1. Dor; * and 

widespread - rtage 21 8,1% 

2. Probably a serious and 

widi energy ■ 15 5.8% 

3. Too uncertain a matter for 

me to pass judgement on 77 29,1% 
k . Probably not really a 
serious and widespread 
energy shortage at all 6^4 2^.7% 

5. Not a serious shortage yet, 

but will be in the future 8l 31.3% 

6. No answer 1 •">% 

103. In general, and as a rule, who should pay the local economic 
costs of industrialization of coal resources (e.g., expansion 
of Law enforcement, public health, and education services)' 

1 . Industry 100 38.6% 

2. Local government 

3. State g ' .'""! 
h . Federal government 

5. The people who directly 
benefit from the power 
produced by the coal 
development 

6. All of the above 

7. None of the above 
(indicate wh 
in this case) 

8. No answer 

]09< ■• iciently strict and enforceable to permit 

continued power plant construction in this area. 

1. Strongly Agree ** 1.5% 

;.. /.,-.,. 38 1H.7% 

3. Neutral 62 23-92 

It. Disn ■ 99 38, 

r,. Str 22 8.5% 

6. No Answer 3*J 13.1% 



8 


3.1% 


3 


1.2% 


7 


6.6% 



kl 

76 


18. 1JS 
29-3% 


? 
6 


.8% 
2.3% 



- 232 - 



HO. We owf Lt I the rest of the United States to generate electricity 
here and transmit it to them. 



] . 


; ',ree 




Ag] — 


. 


Neutral 


).. 


Disagree 


'■• 


Strongly Disagree 




No Answer 



1 


.UJ 


25 


9.7% 


23 


8.9% 


13U 


51.735 


66 


25.5% 


L0 


$.9% 



1. 



111, Miners tend to consider themselves permanent residents of the 

are I arc, in basic social respects, much more like the long- 
residents than like construction workers. 

Strongly Agree 5 1.9% 

Agre< 90 3U.7% 

3. Neutral ^8 18.5% 

h. Disagree 70 27-0% 

5. Strongly Disagree l6 6.2/» 

6. No Answer 30 11.6% 

11?. Judging from what can be observed at Colstrip, Montana Power 

Company's advertised reclamation claims are certainly believable. 

1. Strongly Agree 3 1.2% 

2. Agree ^7 18.1% 

3. Neutral 6l 23.6% 
h. Disagree 76 29-3% 

5. Strongly Disagree ^2 l6.2% 

6. No Answer 30 11.6% 

113. Too little attention is being paid to the social costs of coal 

Lch ace : • whatever economic benefits coal 
lopment is bringing to Rosebud County. 

39 3 5.1% 



] . 


i ngly A 




Agn e 


:. 


:;• utral 


)|. 


DJ s; 


5. 


Sti ngl ; Lis 


.:. 


No Ai 



136 


52.5% 


h2 


16.2% 


?\ 


8.1% 


U 


1.5% 


17 


6.6% 



- 233 - 



ns who live outside of the area where coal 

re poorly informed about what is 
ually h :i ■' in this area. 



] . 


Strongly Agri 


• 




. 




... 


D i 


. 


Strongly Die:. 


<:. 


No Answ< v 



27 


lo.ujf 


161 


62.235 


20 


1.1% 


59 


15-136 


1 


.i»* 


11 


U .2% 



115. Pow< •■ ■ ■■ npanie: rhould never be granted the right to use eminent 
domain to obtain rights of way for power lines. Instead, a 

>tiation procedure should be used, one which allows each land- 
owner to have the final word concerning the use of the land. 

1. Strongly Agree 52 20.1$ 

2. Agree 1**5 56.05& 

3. Neutral IT 6.6$ 
U. Disagree 38 lh.1% 

5. Strongly Disagree 2 .8% 

6. Mo Answer 5 1 • 9$ 

■ . We owe it to the rest of Montana to develop more industry for 
state. 

1. Strongly Agree 

2. .' " 
3. 
h . D i 

5. S1 iy Disagree 

6. No An. . 

]]-, " hi] Iren differently than they do 

"] ra nt" ch i Ldren. 



?. 


1.2* 


57 


22.0$ 


33 


12.1% 


29 


ko.b% 


31 


12. 055 


6 


2.3$ 



1 . 


. 1 ngly A ' ' 


. 




• 


Neutra] 


.. 


n 




. 


... 


■ 



2 


.8% 


32 


12. h% 


59 


22. 8% 


12'i 


hi. 9% 


8 


3.1% 


VI 


13.1* 



- 2 34 - 



5. 


.855 


73. 


,k% 


10, 


,h% 


1 


■ 9% 




M 


8 


.1% 



118. Newcoi ers are well accepted into church activities if they want 
t.o be. 

1. Strongly Agree 15 

2. Ac 190 

3 . Neutr 27 
li . Disagree 5 

5. Stn : .• Ls ;ree 1 

6. Ho Answer 21 

119. The life-styles and values of construction workers are at least 
as desirable as those of permanent residents. 

3 . S1 rongly Agree 1 •'*# 

2. Agre 63 2h.37° 

I. Neutral **6 17 . 855 

h. Disagr< • 108 hi. 7% 

5. Sir : Disagree 17 6.655 

6. No Answer 2*+ 9- 3% 

120. People who object to coal development in this area should move 

./here else. 



. 


Strongly A, 


.-'. 




->. 


U- u1 ral 


ll. 


Disagn e 


5. 


Strongly Disagree 


0. 


". 



3 


1.255 


19 


7-3$ 


12 


U.63K 


125 


U8 . 355 


9U 


36.355 


6 


2.355 



L. Because industries have to bo competitive, it is unfair to expect 
thera to tell the public 1 u1 their expansion plans. 

] . Si ron j] y Agree 3 1-2/5 

2. Agree 9-755 

3. Neutral J 8 6.955 
)i . Dis.-j ree 169 65-355 

5. ee 36 13-955 

6. No Answer 8 3-155 

about w permit further coal mining and power 

..-. : not be influenced by people like me. 

1 . :' ly Agri 

2. A ree 

3. N'< ul i". I 

li . i 



2 


.8% 


20 


7-755 


1 1 


h . 255 


157 


60 . 655 



- 235 - 



5. Strongly Disagree 66 25-5* 

6. No Answer 3 1.2% 

123. Decii - about the rate at which further coal mining and power 

generation should be permitted should not be influenced by people 
like 



. 


Strongly Agree 


. 


■'■ 


■■.. 


Neutral 


... 


Disagree 


• 


ugly Disagree 


. 


No Answer 



2 


.8% 


23 


8.1% 


19 


7-3% 


150 


57 • 9% 


50 


19-3% 


17 


6.6% 



12l». Decisions about whether to permit further coal mining and power 
eneration will not be affected by what people in this area 
think should be done, but by the pressures exerted by industrial 

giants. 

1 . Strongly Agree 

2. Agree 

3. Neutral 
k. Disagree 

5. Strongly Disagree 

6. No Answer 

125. Your family ties will be affected by the coal development and 
the population influx. 



6 


2.3% 


118 


U5-6% 


25 


9-7% 


87 


33-6% 


12 


k.6% 


11 


k.2% 



l. 


Strongly Agree 


. 


Agree 


-. 


Neutral 


J*. 


Disagree 


•• 


Strongly E 1 




No Answer 



15 


5-8% 


105 


140.5^ 


20 


1.1% 


108 


hi. 7% 


5 


1.9% 


6 


2.3% 



126. Power arid coal companies should be required to reveal their long- 
ms no thai ficials can evaluate the 

plans . 

1 . Strongly Ap r< ■• 

I . Agree 

3. He'J 

)| . Di agree 

r >. St r*i mgly Disagree 

6. fin Answer 



Uk 


17 • 0% 


89 


73.0% 


1 1 


k.2% 


9 


3.5% 


2 


.8% 


Ij 


1.5% 



- 236 - 



127. You can 't si reus, 



. 


Stroncly A 


o 




5. 


■ ■■ 1 


'.. 


Pi :■• 


5- 


Stroncly Disa 




No Answer 



L5 


5-8* 


l6k 


63.3* 


21 


8.1* 


1*5 


7.1»* 


6 


2.3°/ 


8 


3.1* 



128. In a democratic government, each person should have one vote. 

1. Strongly Agree 22 8.5$ 

2. Agree 213 82.2* 

3. Neutral 8 3.1* 
1* . Disagree 8 3-1* 

5. Strongly Disagree 3 1.2* 

6. No Answer 5 1-9* 

129. It is likely that the four power generating units and the related 
strip mining activities which Montana Power Company wants could 

1 p< rate in this area without harmfully affecting existing ranch- 
in'-, operations. 



: . 


Strongly Agree 


. 


Agree 


-• 


Neutral 




Disagree 


• 


Strongly Disagree 







5 


1.9* 


57 


22 . 0* 


33 


12.7* 


09 


1*2.1* 


1*3 


16.6* 


12 


k.6% 



130. . Lng would be just as expensive as deep mining if coal 
paid the ich things as rendering the 

: land useless for ture for many years, displacing 
cultural people from their land for many years, putting the 
Lnto low tax status for many years, and the like. 

1. Strongly ' l6 6.2* 

2. Agn 

3. Neu1 
•t. Disagree 

5. Strongly I 

6. No Answer 



123 


1*7.5* 


56 


21 . 6* 


32 


12.1** 


3 


1.2* 


> 


11.2* 



- 237 - 



L3 


5.0% 


9h 


lh.9% 


26 


10.07, 


9 


3.5% 


6 


2.3% 


] l 


k.2% 



• coal is preferred to deep mining it because 
cconomi for the coal company and safer for 

1 . Strongly Agree 

2. Agree 

3. Neutral 
h. Disagree 

5. Strongly Disagree 

6. No Answer 

132. A shift in political power from townspeople to ranchers is be- 
coming evident. 

1. Strongly Agree 3 1.2% 

2. Agree 38 lU.7% 

3. Neutral **1 15-8% 
U. Disagree 121 U6.7% 

5. Strongly Disagree **1 15-8% 

6. No Answer 15 5-8% 

133. National enerj i can best be met by: 

1. Increasing strip mining 
activities in this area 25 9-7% 

2. Increasing the number of 

rating plans in this 
area 

3. Individuals and families 
conservin • 29 11.2% 

I4 . Industry and commercial 
institutions conserv 

27 10. I* % 

5. Develo] 
em -' ... urci sun 
and wind 1*»3 55. 

6. All 15 5.8% 

7. i. 15 5.8% 

in this area should have a stronger voice 

■ 1 k i : 1 ' 

L. Acti 

uiorn 51 

2. Aetioi count- i li 

3 . 1 
si ri] 



5 1 



16 



- 23R - 



135- 



136. 



7 
8 

9 

10 



OperatJ . Local schoo] 17 
The rate of inc.'' indus- 



trialization 

C state and 
federal lands 

The use of neighbors' lands 
Coal leasing on state and 
federal lands 
Coal leasing on neighbors' 
1 and s 

pie already have enough 
input into decisions being 
made 



118 

h 

r 'l 
.11 



1*1 



How satisfied are you with the influence you have on local 
government? 



1. Very satisfied 

2. Satisifed 

3. Uncertain, neutral 
U. Unsatisfied 

5. Very unsatisfied 

6. No Answer 



1 
90 
90 
52 

22 
), 



1.555 



Ranch land which has been strip mined can be considered reclaimed 
when: 



2, 



U. 

5. 
6, 

r. 



It turns green again 

The mining company says it 

is reclaimed 

Native grasses are restored 

and the land can withstand 

normal grazir .sure 

out being irrigated or 
fertil iz< d 

It m ' ;overnment stand- 
for reclamation 

thii other than above 

• i f y ) 
Don't know 
No a i 



M 
M 



231 

r 
5 



89.2? 
2.35S 

1.9% 
k.6% 
1.2% 



- 239 - 



137. I have recently (within the Inst six months) seen: 

1 . A :■ trip mine ^3 

2. Col strip 20 1.1% 

3. A reclamal «o% 
li . More than one of the above 1.63 62.9$ 

5. None of the above 29 11.2$ 

6. No Answer 2 .8$ 

138. At this time the area's principal economic support comes largely 
from : 



1. 
. 

k. 


Mining 

Vri culture 

Industrial construction 

Unknown 


9 

230 

5 

13 


3.5% 

88.8$ 

1.9$ 
5.0$ 


'. 


No Answer 


2 


.8$ 









6 


2.3$ 


li 


k.2% 


30 


11.6$ 


30 


11.6$ 


160 


62 . 2$ 


21 


8.1$ 



139. The tax revenue from the coal development is being distributed: 

1 . Very fairly 

2. More fail I airly 

3. Neither fa ir 'airly 
h. More unfairly than fairly 

5. Very unfairly 

6. No opinion 

7 . No answer 

1U0. Increased needs for recreation facilities should be provided by: 

1. Constru 32 12.U/» 

2. Montana Fewer Cc " and 

Western Ener 79 30.5$ 

3. County ta ■ 2h 9-3$ 
k. Other (spec-'' 15 5-8$ 

5. More than one of the above 88 33-9$ 

6. No answer 21 8.1$ 

1 ), 1 . How coi bout the environment (air, water, plants, animals) 

do yon think th nipai '.'•'. in the Col strip vi- 

C i II i I 7 '•' i .. 

1 . V< .'■;, 

2. ( Vn ■■ r 

3. Neutral, neither concerned 
..... . . erried 

h. Very unconcerned 



Ih 


5. 




65 


25. 


1 ,0 


57 


22. 


0$ 


79 


30, 


r r' 



- 240 - 



7 


2.1% 


i)t 


5.W 


■n 


35.1% 


v'. 


13.1/5 


32 


12. U? 


1*1* 


IT • 055 


37 


lU.3< 



5. Ik; opinion 35 13.5? 

6. No a 9 3-5/" 

we would like you a few final questions regarding 
dev< 1. in and arc 

lh?. How would the bui ration of units 3 and h affect the 

stal of youi 

1. Greatly inc) e the 

2. Somewhat increase it 

3. No effect on the stability 
li . r>i inn what decrease it 

5. ability 

6. No opii 
T. No answer 

Please answ r the folio ' questions as Very Beneficial, Bene- 
fici, . ental, Very Detrimental, No Answer. 

1U3. During the construction hase of units 3 and U, what type of an 
effect would the influx have on the area? 

1. Very Beneficial 1 .h% 

2. Fencfici; 27 10. 

3. Neither or Neutral 38 lk.J% 
h. Detriment 96 37.1? 

5. Very D< *»8 !'"'.'' 

6. No .' ■ J *9 18.9? 

iMt. How u units ct the distribution of tax revenues 

1 a] 

L. Verj k 1.5% 

'. Benefic ^3 16.6% 

3. N 75 29. 

li. Del 30 1J • 



Vo l6 6.2? 

c. -. 1 . 91 35.1? 



■ 



- 241 - 



How would un ; I and ; 4 affect job security in the area? 

1. Ver;, 11 k.2% 

2. Benefici; 109 ^2.1^ 

3. Neither or Neut] hi 18.1$ 
k. Detriment 25 9.7$ 

5. Very Detrimental 6 2.3$ 

6. No Answer 6l 23.6$ 

l'i6. How would units 3 and k affect your job security? 

J . Very Beneficial 3 1.2$ 

?. Beneficial 20 1.1% 

3. Neither or Neutral 162 62.5$ 

h. Detrimental 11 h ,2% 

5. Very Detrimcn J 10 3.9% 

6. No Answer 53 20. 5£ 

1^7 . During the operal i e of units 3 and k, what type of an 
ect would the population influx have on the area? 

1 . Very Benef ic 

2. Be: al 

3. Neither or Neutral 
k. Detrimental 

5. Very Detrimental 

6 . No An : 

1*4 8. Over the long ran years, units 3 and k 

'■ lid ■!. what • ect on this area? 

1 . Ver;. i 

2. Beneficial 

3 . '.' 
I*. Detrime 

5. Very Detr . 
K> i An! 

• '" thi •■. , units 3 and U would 



; . 


1.2% 


53 


12.1% 


53 


20.5$ 


82 


31.7? 


29 


11.2$ 


59 


22.8$ 



2 




M 


72 


27 


M 


55 


21 


.2% 


37 


lk 


.3% 


12 


12, 


,h% 


Si 


23 





'I 



Very hem fiei 1 ,h% 

Hoi ial 70 27.0* 

}• ' Ii0 l r ; .W 

'»• 59 22.8% 

5. Very Dctrii i .1% 

6. N 55 21 - 



- 242 - 



15 o. U) i and k wou I rfhat kind of effect on the quantity of 

. . : Lural use in this area? 

1. Very Beneficial 

2. Beneficial 5 1-9% 

3. Neither or N 68 26.3% 
1). Detriment 97 37-5% 

5. Very Detrimental H6 17-8% 

6. N Answer ^3 3 6.6% 

I'jl, Units , and '. would affect the water quality of the area. 

j . Very Beneficial 2 .8% 

2. Bene fir 5 1-9% 

3. Neither or Neutral 7-1 27->+% 
it. Detriir. 100 38. 6% 

5. v etrimental 39 15.1% 

6. No Answ ^2 l6.2% 

152. If units 3a: Lt , what would be the effect on the 

quality of education at the Colstrip school? 

1. Very Benefic 

2. Beneficial 

3. Neither or Neutral 
U, Detrimei 

5. Very Detrime: 

6. No Answer 

of an effect on the air 
quality where you live? 

1. Very Bern fie . 



3. :. 76 2:. 

l,, 96 37.1% 

5. Very Detrimental ^1 15-8% 

6. :. ' iwer ^6 17.8% 

. . 1 dinR and •• nd h would have what kind 

area in general? 



' 


.8% 


29 


11.2% 


5»« 


20.9% 


75 


29.0% 


I*] 


15-8% 


58 


22.U% 





. 











: i a ] 








. 


1 


143 


16.6% 


... 




122 


1*7.1% 



- 243 - 



5. Very Detr : U8 .18. 5$ 

6. No Answer 1*6 17.85? 

155. the construction of units 3 and h will result in in- 
creased strip raining , permission for construction of units 3 and 
h should be: 

1. Granted now 20 7-7$ 

2. Delayed until effects of 
strip mining on ground water 
supplies are known 52 20.1% 

3. Delayed until more is known 

about reclamation 36 13.9% 

I4 . Delayed until impact studies 

such as the Decker-Birney 

study are done in other 

areas h 18.1% 

5- Delayed until the effects of 

1 and 2 are kn 

6. Not be built at all 

7. No answer 

156. The shopping center at Colstrip is being built with the financial 
assistance of industrial revenue bonds issued by Rosebud County. 
This is: 



111 


5M 


56 


21.6% 


311 


13.1% 



. 


! if 


32 


12.U58 


. 


Bad for taxpayers 


a 


25.9% 


-. 


N • 


22 


8.5% 


.. 


Unknown 


105 


U0.5% 


• 


•iswer 


33 


12.7% 



157. How do you think : ; pulation influx in the county would 
be during the c se of units 3 and hi 

1. Over 14,000 28 10.8% 

2. 3,000 - !*,000 35 13.5% 



3. 2,000 - 3,000 25 9-7% 

>i. 1,000 - 2,000 23 8.9% 

5. Ui , 00 6 2.3% 

6. No id. 117 14 5.258 

7. No unsv< r 25 9-7% 



- 244 - 



158. 1 believe that un I I uld: 

1 . E lilt unconditii 11 h.2% 

2. Be bui i i state can 

36 13.9$ 

3. Not itil the 

units 1 and 2 

are known 100 38.6% 

J|. Not he built at all 92 35-5% 

5. No answe 20 7 -1% 

y acquaintances believe that units 3 and U should: 

1 . Be bu i 1 ly 6 2 . 3% 

?.. Be built i J te can 

enforce stroi ■• titr 25 9.7% 
3. Not be built until the 

of units 1 and 2 are 

known 78 30.1% 

't. Not be built 101 39-0% 

5. No answe ■ i»9 18.9% 

l60. Units 3 and h should be approved if (check 1 or 2 most important 
answ< 

1. Air and water pollution con- 
tro ' 

thou : h iple wi 

56 

,. : 

thou ffects 

arc unkn sent 

6 
3. The total po] 

the numl r 

U 
U . ," ■ 

tics 
rural 
6 

hem 86 

6. :' t bi 100 

7. "■ wor I49 



- 245 - 



l6l. Uni1 I should be ./ed until (check 1 or 2 most important 

1. A l ' d to i ■ 
people who wil] 

.20 

2. More is known a I he ef- 
fects of units 1 and 2 on 

air and water 175 

3. More is known about w< 

i: ■ ■ • ed ; f *om Yellowstone 
Riv 29 

h. School facilities catch up IT 

5. More is known about ' 

•t on Indian rva- 
tions 6 

6. More is known about social 
costs of unitr. i and 2 hi 

7. Better living conditions are 
i ■ . ided for construction 
work' h 

8. Land rec ssured 112 

9. Should not be d lU 
10. Should not be built 123 

162. Judging from your observn ' i u . f how Colstrip has developed, how 
■ to the needs and rns of people who live close to- 
, think Montana Power is? 

1. V Ltive 

2. Sei M 

3. Neither Sensitive nor 
Insensitive 

ttive 

5. Very 1 nsens i tive 

6. I.' \nswer 

you think the .land reclamation program in this 

area di 

1 . Verj ful 

. •' . 

3. No i th< r .' iccer.sfu] 

Uti . :' i ' 

h . Un: . 

r j . Very Unsuccessful 

6. No A:,. 



6 


2.3$ 


+ D 


17.8? 


514 


20.8$ 


66 


25- 5% 


k3 


16.6/, 


Uli 


17 • 0% 



'; 


1.9* 


63 


2»*.3# 


U] 


15. 855 


63 


2l».3J8 


57 


22. o£ 


30 


11 . 6% 



- 246 - 



161*. If units 3 and U are conr.tructed, my taxes probably will: 



. 


Go down substantially 


:. 


1.5% 


>. 


Go down slightly 


L8 


6.9% 


3. 


Be unaffected 


■■■( 


18. lf» 


.. 


Go up slightly 


62 


23. 9% 


5- 


Go up substantially 


81 


31 . 3% 


6. 


No answer 


1*7 


18.15? 





Strongly Agree 


2. 


Agree 


3. 


Neutral 


... 


Disagree 


-). 


Strongly Disagree 


6. 


No Answer 



Please answer each of the following questions as Strongly Agree, 
Agree, Neutral, Disagree, Strongly Disagree, No Answer. 

165. Burlington Northerns' reputation among landowners in the vicinity 
of Col strip lias definitely improved as coal development has 
gotten underway. 

1 M 

13 5-0$ 

81* 32.14 

60 23.2$ 

10 3. 3% 

91 35-1? 

166. The town of Colstrip is a good example for showing that Montana 
Power Company is more interested in providing a good community 
than in earning dollars. 

1. Strongly Agree 1 .^% 

2. Agree 7 2.1% 

3. Neutral 3 1 * 13.1$ 
It. Disagree 108 Ul. r J% 

5. Strongly Disagree 56 21. 6$ 

6. No ' 53 20.5$ 

167. In genera] and an a rule, the people who receive enerpy from coal 
r.ho . ly the local social costs ("people pollution" and adverse 
econoi Lc effi ■■■U' , etc . ) . 



: . 


• • ugly Agree 


214 


9.1% 


. 


' 


127 


1*9-0$ 


•,. 


. . - .ral 


29 


11.2$ 


... 




39 


15.1$ 


5- 


. • : : r. 1 y Disagree 


>i 


1.5/5 




No Answer 


36 


U.9% 



- 247 - 



168. If unil built, Colstrip and vicinity would no longer 
be a desirable place for you to live. 

I . St. i- • ' :.. Agree M 17.0? 

2. Agr. 79 30.5? 

3. Neutral 37 lU.3# 
k. Disagree hi 15.8? 

5. Strongly Disagree 3 1.2? 

6. No Answer 55 21.2? 

169. If units 3 and It are constructed, juvenile delinquency rate would 
not noticeably increase. 

1. Strongly Agree 2 .8? 

2. Agree 22 8.5? 

3. Neutral 2h 9-3? 
It. Disagree I3I 50.6? 

5. Strongly Disagree 29 11.2? 

6. No Answer 51 19-7? 

170. Highway 315 in the vicinity of Colstrip is no more Montana Power 
Company's responsibility than that of others in the county. Ac- 
cordingly, Montana Power should not be asked or required to pay 
a significant share of the cost of repairing the road damage its 
industrial activities have caused. 

1. Str - - ;ree 7 2.7? 

2. ,' 33 12.7? 

3. Neutral 16 6.2? 
It. ree 116 hh.B% 

5. Strongly Disagree 62 23-9? 

6. No .'. 25 9-7? 

171. We M ctricity and we should obtain it as 
Mon1 'ower s . ; should, by building additional power 

at Colstrip. 



; . 


Stron 


. 


■ 


-.. 


■ 


. 




5- 


Sl.roi isagree 




ilUtWi.'V 



1 


.h% 


56 


13.9? 


37 


lU. 3? 


111. 


UU.0% 


It] 


15.8? 


JO 


11 . 6? 



- 248 - 



: strip should have a signifi- 
i concerning whether or not to locate 
units 3 an here). 



] . 




2. 


■ 


1. 


Lral 


.. 


1 


>■ 


Strongly I 1 : 




iswer 



1*1» 


IT . 0* 


150 


51-9% 


20 


1.1% 


16 


6.2* 








29 


11.2* 



173. Units 3 and li should be built close to those who will use most of 
the electricity which these units will generate. 

M< 11. h% 

121 U6.7* 

27 10. k% 

25 9.1% 

2 .8% 

39 15.1* 

It is Duild power plants such as units 3 and 1* in 

pie of the state will benefit from their 
contributions to the tax base and to employment more than they 
will suffer from ;e to the natural environment and to their 
rural way of life. 



1 . 


ugly Agree 


. 


Agree 


J. 


Neu1 


... 


Diss 


5- 


Strongly Disa 


• . 


No Ar. 



1. 


Strong 


. 


e 


■• 




. 








. 


No Answer 



3 


1.2* 


39 


15-1* 


30 


11.6* 


93 


35-9* 


50 


19-3* 



1 15- if units 3 and lilt, the quality of my life would certain- 
ly it:.- .... 

1 • ■ 2 .8* 

— ; 8 3.1* 

3- •'■ 35 13. 

h'>. 

5. 53 

6. No Answer 1,2 J.6. 



249 - 



3 76 If units 3 ar. i id, the impact will not last more than 

a and our living conditions will 

return to nor 

] . Strongly \gre 3 1 ' 2 '° 

2t 19 7- 3% 

22 8.5* 

l - Di ' ' 12 d Vi'Vi 

5. Strongly Disagree ^b 1 '-°^ 

6. No Answer ^ IT- 8% 

ITT. Ranch life around here will not be greatly affected if units 3 
and U are approved. 



178. 



179- 



. 


Strongly / 


. 


' 


. 


ral 


It. 


■ 




Strongly Di 


6. 


No A- 



3 


1.2% 


3^ 


13.1* 


?-: 


8.9* 


118 


U5.65S 


U3 


16. 6$ 


38 


lU.7* 



5 


1.9* 


J2 


12.U% 


35 


13.5* 


110 


U2 . 5* 


38 


lU.7* 


■9 


15.1* 



When units 1 i operational, air quality will not be 

greatly affec 

1 . Strongly Agree 

2. Agree 
3. 
U . Di 

5. Str 

'. Answer 

When units 1 and 2 bee rational, water quality will not be 
rre; 

26 10.0* 
'. iLral U 6 17.8/. 

:.. . 102 39. 

5. -ee 36 1 3-9* 

6. ll3 l6 - 6/ 






■ trol over decision: 

1. ■ fee '®J 

2. ■ 1T 6 ' 6 '! 

2U 9-3* 



- 250 - 



It. ] >-ee 151 58.3$ 

5. Strongly Disagree UO 15- ] >% 

6. No 25 9-7? 

181. It would bo bettor for the construction of units 3 and U to be in 
a c - town because it would prevent growth of shanty 
towns and development would be more orderly. 

1. ee 5 1.9$ 

2. Agree 107 Ul.3% 

3. Neutral Ul 15.8JJ 
H . Disagree ^7 l8.1/« 

5. Strongly Disagree 9 3-5% 

6. No Answer 50 19-3% 

182. Most of those employed in construction of units 1 and 2 are 

Mont an- 1 



1. 


Strongly Agree 


2. 


ee 


-. 


Neutral 


It. 


Disagree 


':■• 


Strongly Disagree 




No Answer 









18 


6.9% 


5 1) 


20.8* 


72 


27 • 8% 


ll» 


5.W 


101 


39 . Of. 



183. Most of those employed on construction of units 1 and 2 are well 
Lfii : for the jobs they are doing. 



1. 


Strongly / 


. 


A ;ree 


. 


• ral 


.. 


Disc '• 




Strongly D 




No Answer 



2 


M 


66 


25- 5p 


72 


27-8$ 


20 


1.1% 


2 


.8% 


97 


37 • 5% 



l8'». There is frequent tun. among those employed on plant 
construction and related construction. 



1 . 


Str ■ . ■ ■ 
'.ral 


. 




5. 

... 


• ' - rigly Di 
No Answer 



8 


3.15S 


98 


nM 


51 


n.i% 


L3 


5.0% 


1 


1-1*56 


88 


3U.0SJ 



- 251 - 



185- The kind of people employed at construction sites around here are 
not . . they might he because more skilled work- 

err, take jobs with better working conditions. 



; . 


ingly Agree 


2. 




:■ 


Neui 


. 


Disa 


5- 


Strongly Disagree 


6. 


No Answer 



67 


25-9* 


6o 


23. 2$ 


b? 


20.1* 








78 


30.1% 



J 86 . Living conditions in the construction trailer courts are not good 
because adequate facilities have not been provided for the work- 
ers. 



1 . 


Strongly Agree 


. 


Agree 


■;. 


bral 


k. 


tgree 


'•■ 


Strongly Disa 


. 


No Answer 



10 


3.9* 


85 


32.856 


55 


21 . 2% 




9-7* 








8U 


32. k% 



l87. Children of newc make the schools more interesting, 



188. 



. 


ugly Agree 


. 


Agree 


-.. 


Neutral 


. 




. 


Strongly Di 


•.. 


No Answer 



Children of S( ; become 





Strongly 


. 


Agree 


• 


Neutru 1 


1) 


Disa •■ 


■ 


. ■ 


.. 


No Answer 



2 


M 


73 


28. 2% 


6? 


23.9$ 


51 


19-7* 


7 


2.7$ 


614 


2U.7 ; 




:• rs in school 








;;; ; 


20.1* 


81 


31.3/5 


51 


19.7* 


2 


.8* 


7 3 


28. ?% 



- 252 - 



l8o. Miner:-,' children do not accept construction children in their 
activit : lily. 

1 .k% 

12 k.6% 

90 3k. r (% 

U5 17. k% 



111 U2.9* 

190. Eastern Montana's resources (land, minerals, water, recreational 
opportunities) are being exploited by outsiders. 



5. 


"gly Agree 
■' 

ral 


• • 


Disa 

Strongly Disagree 
No Answer 



1. 
2. 

-. 


ugly Agree 
Neutral 


k. 
5- 


Disa • ■ 

Strongly Disagree 

No A;. 



V, 


l6.6f* 


28 


U9 . U% 


29 


11.2* 


2] 


8.136 


2 


.838 


36 


13.9* 



191- The construction of units 3 and k would cause serious crowding 
of the schools. 



! . 


Ly Agree 
■■ 
'. itral 


u. 


'. - ■ 
Strongly Disa 
No Answer 



',1 


18.95? 


53 


59- 1^ 


9 


3-5* 


? 


.8% 








1.6 


11. Q% 



192. ' • units 3 and k would improve the quality of the 

' education. 

1. Stroi 

2. Agr 2U 9.3/S 

3. Neutral 39 15.1* 
k. Dicagr ■■ llU Uh . 0% 

25 9.7% 

6. No Answer 57 22.0* 

... would increase the amount that you 

I '■.■ ' ... 

1 . ■ ' ■■ ■ ' .-ee 2k 9. 3% 

129 Ii9.8* 

•• 2U 9.3/3 

l|. Di. 28 10.8% 



- 253 - 



5. Strongly i 1 







6. NO Answer ^ 20.8% 

19ll . lildine of units 3 and 1, would improve the quality and 

. inability of medical services. 

1. Strongly Agree 1 ^ % 



195 ■ 



2. Agree 



agree .. ^ 

, r tral o- 

H. Disi i i °£ J - 

5. Strongly Disagree * ^ 5 J 

6. No Answer T3 28.2% 

The building of units 3 and U would improve the quality and 
availability of dental services. 

1. Strongly Agree J -^ 

2. Agree ' - 

U. Disagree u % if 

5. ,,ly Disagree ^ 

6. No Answer ? 2 27.8/< 

196. Units 3 and U would adversely affect the municipal water supply. 
(Forsyth and Colstrip) 

Strongly Agree J-U 5- > 

. 120 Uo.3,» 

Agree \r lU 7% 

Disagree *" f 

5 . Strongly Disagree J £-f£ 

6. No " 58 22 ' U/i 
Population i, . associated with units 3 and h would neces- 

ite more spending on welfare. 



1. 

. 
3. 

U 



197- 



Strongly Agree 25 9 ; 7* 

•"• ' ree i?, ,„ o<* 



2. 

3 - ral 23 8.9% 



28 10.8% 



n n 
5. Strongly Disagree 



6. 






53 20.5% 



- 254 - 



19 8. t ■• ^ f units 3 and U V ° Uld haVC " ^ 

life. 

25 9.'!% . 
1- Strongly . - g ^ 

2 - Af * r ' u 5 n.u% 

?• * 66 25.55S 

14. Di: , c«j 

5- Str ree SO l 9 ".3i 

6. No Answer ? u x ^ 

4--s«„ r>f units 3 and U would have a good 
199. The building and operation of units 5 ana 

effect on the younger generation's way of life. 

2 • 8% 
1. Strongly Agree * ^ 

2 - J 8 " 6 . h2 16.2* 

?' " eUtral 110 U2.5% 

U. Disagree - 

5. Strongly Disagree 35 13- 5 J 

6. No Answer H:? X| ' 

~-p ,mit<: 3 and U would decrease your 
200 The building and operation of units i ana 
feeling of being part of the community. 

1. Strongly Agree ? ^ 

2 - Asree , U0 IS- 

3. Neutral ^ 

h. Disagree ,„ 

5. Strongly Disagree J- -J 

6. No Answer 6 ° 2 3-2* 



201. It is 



ant to feel like you are part of the community. 



!• Stron |5 13. 5 J 

2 - : 11 u.2* 

'• ' 3 1.258 

It. -ee -" 

5- . ee 26 10.0* 



... . A h vou . ,:ly affect community recreation activi- 



ties 



L. ! ly Agree 10 3-9 

• ....... o5 32 



2. 
3 • 

I"! i 



36 13-9 

59 22 



-■ 



,j 



6r ? . 



• . 



- 255 - 



?03. 



20U 



205 



The populate ■ Ld have a negative effect on your 

v ties. 



1. Strongly ■' 

2. 

3. Neutral 

)i. Disagree 

5. Strongly Disagree 

6. No Answer 



7 

53 
U2 

106 

5 

U6 



2.7% 
20.5% 
16.25S 
1*0-9% 

1.9* 
11.8% 



Coal development particularly the construction of units 3 and k 
would decrease the impact you have on decisions made by the local 
govern: - 



1. Strongly Agree 

2. Agree 

3. Neutral 
U. Disagree 

5. Strongly Disa 

6. No Answer 



17 

110 
33 

39 

2 

58 



6.6% 
h2.5% 
12.1% 

15-1% 

.Q% 

22 . U% 



and 1. would have an adverse effect upon asthetics of the 
area. 



1. Strongly Agree 

2 . 

3. Neutral 
k . Disa 

5. Strongly Dis;; 

6. No Answer 

we would like to ki 
to the Decker-Birney Area. 
Birney area respondents.) 



131 

27 

22 



J 5 



17 • 0% 
50.6% 

io. u* 

8.5% 

13-5% 



rour opinions on a few questions related 
;tions 206-213 apply only to Decker- 



206. Any expansion of 

benefit the planni: 

1. Strongly ■' 

2. 

3 . 

h . 

'.'■'■' 

0. No Ans 



opment within the area would directly 
?a's 



residents 




u 


1.5% 


60 


23-2% 


30 


11.6% 


89 


3H.l4% 


5k 


20.8% 


22 


8.5% 



- 256 - 



oot Any expansion of coal development within the Decker-Birney plan- 
207 ' ; L] benefit t h -er outlying municipalities such 

m , Wyoming, or Hardin, Montana, more than the residents 
within the planning area. 

1. Strongly Agree f 8.5% 

2. Agree ^9 65-3% 

3. Neutral 2 5 9-7% 
li. Disagree 26 10.0 J 

5. Strongly Disagree 1 -^ 

6. No Answer lb b '^ 

Mo-t Public lands within the Decker-Birney planning area have 
little agricultural development potential, therefore, they should 
be strip mined. 

V fl!f lyASree 22 8.5* 

25 9-7% 
118 U5. i 



208 



2. Agree 

3. Neutral 
U . Disagree 



5. Strongly Disagree 7 1 * 2 ° ,b ; 



6. No Answer 



20 1-1% 



209. The primary reason for the interest of coal in the Decker-Birney 
planning area is that a majority of the coal is low m sulfur, 
ash, and sodium content. 

1. Strongly Agree 22 8. 5 J 

2. Agree h ' 1 
3. 

5. Strongly Disagree * 

6. No Answer 32 12. U/, 

210. Seven mine-mouth generating plants have been suggested for Decker- 
Bin . planning area 



neutral 36 13.9* 

Disagree 2T 10. W 



Strongly Agree 13 £& 

tral 63 21.3? 



3 

U. Dis: •■• 

5. . I ; ■ ce 

6. No Answer 79 30.5/» 



25 9-7% 




- 257 - 



211. M st public domain timber in the Decker-Birney planning area does 

the ■ of being managed and if it is in the way 

trip mining, it should be sacrificed. 

1. Strongly Agree 1 . h% 

, . ree 28 10.8$ 

3. Neutral 2U 9.3$ 

l». Disagree 136 52.5$ 

5. Strongly Disagree U8 18.5$ 

6. No Answer 22 8. 5% 

212. If water storage facilities were made available, feedlot cattle 
raising could become a major industry in the Decker-Birney area. 

3 1.2$ 

1*6 17.8$ 

3h 13.1$ 

122 1*7.1$ 

2k 9.3$ 

30 11.6$ 

In .-'eneral, the Custer National Forest resources are being well 
managed. 



1. 

2. 

-•• 


Strongly Agree 

Agree 

Neutral 


k. 
6. 


Disagree 

Strongly Disagree 
No Answer 



2. 

-;. 


Strongly Agree 

Agree 

Neutral 


5. 


Disagree 

Strongly Disagree 
iiswer 



26 


10.0$ 


1*40 


5^.1$ 


k9 


18 . 9$ 


16 


6.2$ 


3 


1.2$ 


25 


9-7$ 



Now we would like to ask you some questions regarding your recrea- 
tional activity. Do you own any of the following types of recreation 
equi praent? 

2l't. U-Wheel drive recreational vehicle. 

116 U.8$ 
1I42 5^.8$ 

1 J»$ 



: . 


No 

No Answer 


Ll bike 


- ■ 


No 

No Answer 



25 


9-7$ 


233 


90.0$ 


1 


.1.$ 



- 258 



36 


13.938 


222 


85-755 


1 


M 



2l6. 

1. 

2. No 

No Answer 

. 

1. Yes 19 7.3$ 

2. No 238 91-9/2 

3. No Answer 1 .U% 
h. Unccrto 1 .h% 

Camping trailer or camper 

] . 
?. 
3. No Answer 



220, 



r >l 


19.7f» 


208 


80.335 









I. 



1. Yes 


70 


27 . 0% 


. . No 


187 


72.235 


3. No An: 


2 


.835 


Snowshoes or crocs 


country skies 




J . 


16 


6.235 


2. 


2U] 


93.135 


3 . No Answer 


2 


.835 



221. . 







Yes 

N 1 

No A ■. 


. 




;kies 




! . 
. 


N 

No A: 



JO 


11.635 


228 


88.032 


1 


.k% 



15 5.835 

21)3 93.835 

1 .U% 



. Pj shine rod 

1 . Yes 

2. :. 



189 


73.035 


70 


27 . 0% 









- 259 - 



22U. Bow 



225. 



226. 



227. 



228. 



229. 



; . 

No 


38 
220 


lU.'(% 

au. 9% 


3. No Answer 


1 


M 


Hand 






1. 

2. No 

3. No Answer 


122 

135 

:: 


hi . 1% 
52. If, 

M 


Le or shotgun 






1. Yes 

; . No 


208 
h9 


80. 3# 

18.9* 


3. No Answer 


2 


.836 


Movie camera 






1. Yes 

2. No 


67 

191 


25.9$ 

13.1% 


3. No Answer 


1 


.h% 


35mra camera 






1. Yes 

2. ;. 


53 
205 


20 . 5% 
19-2% 


3. No Answer 


1 


.k% 


Horse 






1 . Yes 

2. No 

1. No Answer 


123 

135 

1 


hi . 5?> 

M 



Wo v , • . idea of what the important factors were 

in y , •; ion to live in this area. A number of persons have given 

.v how important each is for 
ach of the following factors as 
nt, or Not Very Important. 

230. Beaul .. area 

I. Ver\ rtant 

• ant 
3. Not Very 
h . 



1U2 


5»» . a% 


83 


32 . 0% 


32 


12. U* 


2 


M 



- 260 - 



231. 



232. 



233. 



>3fc. 



235. 



236. 








Not Very Im] 
No Answer 


166 

1.8 

:■■' 

6 


6U.1JJ 
L8 . 5% 

15-1$ 
2.3$ 


Health 






• 


Very Important 

..hat Important 
Not Very Important 
No Answer 

sence of crime 


117 

71 

68 

• 


1*5- 2% 

27 • U% 

26. 3£ 

1.236 


k. 

At 


Very Important 
. ! ., :. it Impor 

. ry Important 
No Answer 

sence of pollution 


127 
J 9 
51 

2 


U9 • 0% 
30.5' 
19-75S 

M 


1 . 
. 


what Ira] 
Not Very Important 
No Answer 


162 
67 
28 

2 


62.5% 
25.9^ 
10.8J5 

.8% 


i rby 








■tant 

Not Vi '. "tant 
i swer 


107 

57 

92 

3 


Ul-356 

22 . Of. 

35-5^ 

1.236 


, of living 






• 


Somewha' 
• 
No Ar. 


"1 
75 

5 


2T.l.f 
29.0^ 

1-955 


li 


' 






■ 1. 


■ ■ - . rlunl. 
Not 


63 

■ 

155 

i. 


2U.3/6 

I'i. 3% 

59.83 

1.1.J6 



- 261 - 



238. '• 





Ver 




' 


■3 


Not Very Important 


.. 


N ' nswer 



239. Access to recreation 



1 . Very Important 

2. .' - rfhat Important 66 

3. Not Very Important 130 
h . No Answer 3 

2l»0. Climate 

1. Very Important 83 

?. Somewhat Important 86 

3. Not Very Important 87 

k . No Answer 3 

2U] . Business or ir reasons 

1 . Very Important 130 

2. Somewhat Important U6 

3. Not Very Important 79 
U . No Answer 



U8.3? 

7 It 28.6? 

58 22. U% 

2 M 



60 



2l»2. Deep social roots 

1 . Very Important 97 

2. Somewhat Important U8 

3. Not Very Important 111 
U . No Answer 3 



21*3. 



■ J 


■ Life 




1. 

. 

■■.. 
.. 


V- ry Lmp >rtant 

what Im] 
Not Very Important 
No Answer 


186 
US 

\ 

2 



23. 


: % 


25- 


5% 


50. 


2% 


1. 


2% 


32, 


,2% 


33. 


,2% 


33 


.6? 


1 


.256 


r ^ 


.2% 


L7 


.8% 


30 





U 1.5% 



37. 


5% 


18. 


5% 


1«2.9? 


1. 


,2% 


71 


.8% 


18 


.5% 


8 


.9% 



: ; tally know an; f the foil . types of persons in 
Lhi .. nroa? •!);.• La, y x know their names and speak to them on a 
. r: alii as i .;':' 



- 262 



2U8. 



250. 



1 . 








':• 




:.. 


. 



Law i 

20 i 78.14 

52 20.156 

2 .855 

2 .8$ 

2^5. School teacher (not co 

1. 

2. 

3. Uncertain 

U. swer 

2)t6. Grocer 



210 


81.1% 


U7 


18.1* 








2 


.855 



. 




o 


r; 


■■• 


Ui 


k. 


i; Answer 



2U7. Electrician 



. 


Yes 


2. 


No 


-.. 


Uncertain 


.. 


No Answer 


Phy 


sician 


1. 




. 


N 


■• 


" 


.. 


:; :iswer 



2)19. Farmers r r 



■;-; 


90. Of. 


2h 


9-3% 








2 


.855 



96 


75.7% 


63 


2U . 3% 








i) 






91 


35.155 


165 


63.755 


1 


. 


2 


.855 



. Yes 


257 


2 . N 


2 


3. Vr.i 





', . No A: 1. - 





. 




1 . Yes 


160 


2. N 


89 


3 . 





N 


] 



99.2% 
.855 





65 . 3% 
3U.l4$5 





- 2M - 



251. M r or priests 

1. 
2. 

3. Uneer! 
h . No An.'" 



197 


76. If. 


60 


23-27. 


1 


M 


] 


M 



252. Hardware store operator 



2. 

; . 
1*. 



No 
Uncer 

No Answer 



21 2 


81.9* 


hi 


18.1* 








'i 






253. Sporting goods store operator 



25^ 



255. 



1. Yes 

2. N 

3. Uncertain 


138 
113 


'53.3* 
1*3.6* 

1.9* 
1.2* 


I4 . No Answer 


3 








1. Yes 

2. N 

3. Uncertain 


168 

81 

3 


6h.9% 

31.3$ 

1.2* 

2.7* 


U. No Answer 


7 


Automobile deale anic 




1. Yes 

2. N 


189 
68 


73.0* 

26.3* 


3. Uncertain 








U. No An: 


2 


.8* 



256. Se station operator 






. 




!. 


No 


■• 


rtai 11 


1*. 


No Answer 








. 


. 


•;. 




... 


. 



230 
28 


1 



88.8* 
10.8* 


M 



l!»3 


55.2* 




i»i+.o* 


1 









- 264 - 



258. Nurse 



: . 


Yes 


2. 


:. 


•■■• 


Unci 


. 


No Answer 



192 

66 



l 



259. Hotel or motel operator 

1. ; 1^5 

2. No 11? 

3. Uncertain 
It. No Answer 



lh. 


I/O 


25- 









• 


u% 


56. 


,0% 


1*3.2$ 








260. 



Ranker 





Yes 




No 


. 


Uncertain 


!.. 


No Answer 



181 

76 

2 



69. 9£ 

29-3/2 




26.1. '■■:. re do you go for most medical services' 

5-8£ 

20 . 8% 

18.5* 

3.9$ 

1*2.1$ 

1.956 

2.7$ 

3.1$ 



262 



. 


' 




L5 




Miles City 




5U 


. 


Bi 1 1 




1*8 


. 


Forsyth 




10 




Sheridan 




109 




Lame Deer 




5 


v. 


n't gone 




7 


. 


Other (speci 




8 


Wh< 


do you go 




: 


. 


Hardin 






. 


Miles City 




57 


-.. 


ine;s 




27 


. 


For: . 




15 


• 


idan 






. 


trip 




7 


■ 






I 


. 


. 


• 


• 




• 


13 


10. 


'. 




1 



5.0% 

22.0$ 
10.1*5? 

5-8$ 
1*7.9/? 

.8$ 
1.2$ 

5.055 



- 265 - 







5 




City 


Lit 


. 




L9 


,. 


Forsyth 


5 




Sheridan 


8U 




Broadus 


10 


7. 


.and & 1 Deer 


'i 


. 


Birney 


29 


■■ 


■ (specify) 


2 



263. Where do you usually go for grocery chopping? 

1.9/8 

7.3% 
1-9* 

32.14% 

3.9% 

35.1% 

11.2% 

.8% 

?6h . Even Lh icial decision on approval for construction of 

nts "S and h will not be made for at least a few months, do you 
Levo that the decision has already been informally made? 

1. Yes 186 71.8% 

2. No 2k 9.3% 

3. No Answer 1*9 18.9% 

265. If you consider yourself a permanent resident of this area what 
■ coal development had on your residence? 

1. If it were not for strip 
raining activities I would 

have had to leave this area U 1.5% 

2. If it were not for coal re- 
lated construction activities 

I would have had to leave this 
area 3 

3. Because of c ] related devel- 

. e to leave 
this a 72 

1) . '■ ■:':'■■• m my : • or 

160 

5. Don't consider 
per-- lent 12 

6. No .' 8 

we ild like to a u questions about yourself. 

. Male 13)4 51-758 

2. ; U8.3/S 



1.2% 



27. 


.8% 


61, 


.8% 


It, 
5, 


,6% 
, 1% 



- 266 - 



e (5 year spans) 



269. 



i . 

-;. 
... 

8. 

9. 

10. 
11. 

. . 
13. 

lh. 

15- 






20 

2b 

35 

V; 
;.•-. 
50 
55 

- 
TO 

75 
Above 



.v. 

}9 

» 

;■• 

8 ) 
80 



No Answer 



. 


1.6* 


;"1 


8. If. 


26 


10.0% 




8.8% 


53 


12. It 


23 


8.855 


,'■'» 


9-3% 


22 


8.5* 


; 


7-7% 


22 


8.555 


L8 


7 • 0% 


11; 


5 -U55 


3 


1.258 


•; 


1.255 


J , 


1.2% 



268. Where do you grow up; 






•■• 



... 
■ 



Montana 

Other Roc " rvtain States 

.*• Mexico, Colorado, Idaho 
Wyoming, Utah) 
West coast states (Califor- 
nia, Nevada, Oregon, Washii 
ton, Hawaii, Alaska) 

..est (stal ei west of 
Mississippi F 

em states 
Other country 
No Answer 



162 62.5% 



36 13.' 



1.5% 



15 


13.5% 


22 


8.5% 















■ . , re you raised on a farm or ranch, in a 
, medium sized city, or a big city? 

Far 162 62.5% 
than 10,000 

• .on) 53 20 -5/j 

10,000 - 50,000) 13 5.0/o 
.000 - 

250,000) 16 6.2% 

5. (250,000 or more) 15 5-8% 



small 



: . 
. 



- 267 - 



270. ved in this area? (5 year spans) 

21.2% 
9-7% 
3-1% 

7.3% 
7-3% 
9-3% 
6.6% 
6.2% 
5-'<% 
7-3% 
3-9% 

2.7% 
2.3% 

1.9% 
M 

271. Where were you living immediately before moving to this state! 

1. Montana lkk 55-6% 

2. Other Roc . " intain States 

ico, Colorado, Idaho, 
Wyoming, Utah) k9 18.9% 

3. West coast states (Califor- 

, Nevada, Ore.-" 





many ye:. 


you 






b 


55 


.'. 


6 - 


10 


25 


-. 


li 


- 15 


8 


... 


16 


- 20 


> 


5- 


21 


- 25 


L9 




26 


- 30 


214 


• 


Jl 


- 35 




. 


36 


- ho 


L6 


•• 


■ 


- >45 


.-. 


10. 


•■•! 


- 50 


19 


1 1 . 


~A 


- 55 


J0 


12. 


56 


- 60 


j). 


13. 


. I 


- 65 


7 


Ik. 


66 


- 70 


6 


15- 


Y: 


- 75 


r > 


16. 


'• 


- 80 


l 







ton, Hawaii, Ala 


in 


3.9% 




i.. 


.est (states west of 










Mississippi River) 


3k 


13.1% 




• 


Eastern states 


17 


6.6% 






Other country 


3 


. 


. 




1 Lanning to move away 


from this area? 






21 


8. 


1% 






No 200 




2% 




-. 


Undeci : 38 




7% 



273. If a: w re you a i.r visitor to this area before 

movin 





Yes 


1.2 


16.2% 


- . 




100 


38.6% 


. 


:. • 


109 


142.1 % 


.. 


uswer 


8 


3.1% 



- 26R - 



, y of y ed to move to this area after 
nG you? 

1. • 59 22.8% 

196 

>;. No Answer 1; 1 -^° 

275. Are you the head of the household? 

, 162 62.5% 

• ■ 96 3T,1 J; 

3. No Answer 1 - k '° 

276. If NO, what relation are you to the head of the household? 

1. Wife 87 33.6% 

2. Husband 6 2.p% 

3. Son 1 - k l 
h. Other (specify) 3 1-2% 
5. No Answer • U/ " 

277- Do you consider yourself to be a Montanan? 

1. Yes 2U3 93-8% 

2> , 12 U.6J 

3. Uncertain 3 l- 2 % 

1+. No Answer 1 - li/ ° 

278. What is the occupation of the head of the household? (Be specific) 

Busine. ^ 

1. Businessman 1 T b - b £ 



2. Professional 



6 2.3% 



3. Retin I 5 J • 



h. Cleric; 



8 3.1% 



5. Business, 1 sional 8 3-l> 



5 

tor- 

m i nil • 

)i. " :oal, rc1 
5- ■ - re1 



1 


. 


c 


















- 269 - 



Oper. " : ;ual 

1. ed 25 9-7* 

2. Semi- Led 8 3.1/5 

3. Engineer 
h. Other non-mj -uction 

5. Retired - man 

6. Retired - non-nanual 

Land Related 

1. Rancher 100 38. 6$ 

2. Ranch nan I 15 5-8$ 

3. > 2 .8* 
k. Lor.. ' 3 1.2* 

5. Land related - retired 15 5.8$ 

6. Rai, an 7 2-7* 

Bureaucratic Employment for Professionals and Semi-professionals 

1. City or county position k 1.5* 

2. State position k 1.5* 

3. Federal position 12 h.6% 
U. Teachers 11 k.2% 

5. Religious 7 2.7/5 

6. Retired bureaucrat 

279- Are you single, married, divorced, separated or widowed? 

12.7* 
76.lt* 

3.9* 

6.6* 

.h% 

280. : w many children do you 1 



1 . 






33 




•ied 




198 


•;. 


Divorced or 


sepai- 


10 


. 


Widowed 




17 




..swer 




1 








.'. 


: 


-• 


; 


.. 


3 


'■■ 






5 


7- 


6 


. 


7 


•• 


8 or more 



60 


23.2* 


iU 


13.1* 


67 


25.9* 


-.1 


15.8* 


26 


10.0* 


i i 


6.6* 


6 


2.3* 


-; 


1.2* 


5 


1.9* 



- 2 70 - 



. 



. 


■ 


37 




2. 




26 


10. of, 


i 

- 


Juni 


L3 


5-0% 


i. 




9 


11.2% 


■ 




1 -. 


5.0% 






80 


30.9% 



ive? 

1. M na 89 3 ; > • 

Otli r Hocky M ntain S1 ates 

, C irado, Idaho, 
- Utah) 33 12.7% 

3- West coast states (Califor- 

, . -on, Washing- 
ton, Hawaii, 22 8.5% 

k. Midwest (states west of 

ppi River) 13 5.0% 

5. liastern states k 1.5% 

6. Other c 5 1.9% 

7. No ans. 

283- Do you think your children living i Le of Montana prefer to 
live where they live to Montana? 



: . 


32 


12.14% 




22 


8.5% 


•:. 


•* 6 


. 


. 


. . ;orae do not 3 


1.2$ 


• 


'• 196 


75.7$ 



outside M mtana would return 
here if (they, he, she,) could find a job similar to the one 
cur rontly h 



. 






- ) 


11.2% 


. 


N 




21 


8.1% 


■■. 


Uncer 1 




9 


3 . 5% 


.. 


, 










wo u 1 d 




. 


1 . 5% 


■ 


N 




196 


75-7% 



- 271 - 



285 



Leted by the head of the household? 

1.1 11 ] '-2fa 

thi Lte T5 2 ?'n£ 

3. 72 2f.o% 

I4. lid not 

,a cot 

school train!- UB >t 

27 10. '4% 

I . late tn .or 

;chool 19 T-3% 

7. t apply 2 ^ .8/. 

8. No answer 



5 1 • 93 



o 86 ir e cones closest to your total family income for the 

past year, before taxes? Just tell rae the letter that fxts you 

'• 

1. A - Less than 99 ^ 6.2$ 

- $3,000-$U,999 2 3 8.9^ 

3. c - $5,000-$7,^99 l8 6 - 9/ ; 

U. D - .: , 1 ^- 5 ^ 

r g _$ll) ,909 UT 18.1% 

6 ; F - $15 ',000-$ 10 - ^ 



7. G - $20,000-$29,999 



22 8.5^ 



I! - Over $30,000 32 12. U J 

uo 15- 



9. I - No answer 



287. .-nee? 

1.1 98 2 * 

2. Rur 161 62 

,,uch f io "- The a " swer ^ y° u h * ve 

208 ' notion of what the people 

of this ar. n^ber at matters. If you 

survey, we wxl] 

,e results as soon as they 
■ 

1. Wishes r< 203 78. h% 

2. ! t wish 

514 ?o.W 



3, 



2 .83 



- 27? - 






. 



- 273 - 



APPENDIX B 
USE OF MNEMONICS 

Readers of this report are instructed to familiarize themselves 
with the mnemonic symbols for each indicator of dependent variables. 
An alphabetized Hating of mnemonics and their corresponding mnemonics 
are used in tables throughout the report in order to reduce table size 
to an operable minimum. The author is aware of the potential confusion 
which may accompany the format employed in the construction of tables. 
His apologv not withstanding, the format is probablv the most efficient 
one that could be incorporated into this report. The reader probably 
will find that after a brief period of familiarization with the 
mnemonics they will become readily understandable. In fact, because 
they are abbreviated symbols for lengthier sentences, the use of 
mnemonics may actually speed up the processes of reading and understand- 
ing the text of the report. 



Ilk - 



MNEMONIC 



AGCOAL 



AGEMPLOY 



AGFDPLAN 



AGFOOD 



AGHELP 



AGINDCOM 



AGINDSUP 



AGINFAV 



AGINFL 



AGNATNED 



AGOWNED 



AGPEACE 



AGPOLIND 



NAME OF MEASURE 

Since the Nixon administration is pushing very 
hard for energy self-sufficiency by 19R0, Montana 
coal should be mined. 

One person's right to a clean environment is not as 
important as another's right to gainful employment. 

Federal professional planners should not be involved 
with development in Montana. 

The choice for strip mining in agricultural areas 
means there will be less food production both now 
and in the future. 

More and more I feel helpless in the face of what 
is happening in the world today. 

If there is going to be additional development 
around here, individual communities rather than 
State or Federal governments should control and 
conduct it. 

Even when carefully controlled, industrialization 
is likely to upset a community. 

Not much information concerning mining and related 
developments is being made available to the general 
public. 

There Is very little that persons like me can do 
to stop inflation. 

N'one of us has the right to interfere with the 
nation's need for western coal. 

Where natural resources are privately owned, neither 
neighbors nor government should have any say over 
how the natural resources are used. 

A lasting world peace can be achieved bv those of 
ua who work toward it. 

Industries should be forced to shut down if they 
fail to meet governmental pollution standards. 



- 275 - 



AGPOWR 
AOPTENTL 

AGS AC R 

AGS AT IS 
AGS CI 

AGSTPLAN 

AREADED 
AREAPLN 

ARECHILD 
ARE CONST 

ARECOUNS 

ARECROWD 
AREDESIR 

AREHAP 

AREHFLTH 
AREHLP 

AREHOUSP 



This world is run by the few Deople in power and 
there is not much a person like me can do about it. 

Most public lands within the Decker-Rirnev planning 
area have little agricultural development potential, 
therefore, they should be strip mined. 

As badly as we need new industry and 1obs, we 
cannot afford to sacrifice our clean air and 
agricultural land to attain them. 

In general, I am satisfied with my situation in life. 

Man should use scientific knowledge to deal with 
problems whenever and wherever possible. 

State professional planners should not be involved 
with development in Montana. 

An adult education program would be useful. 

As far as you know, has there been any community 
or area-wide planning in this area? 

This is a good place to bring up children. 

The quality of road construction and maintenance 
is very high in this area. 

Additional counseling services in this area would 
be useful. 

This area is getting too crowded. 

Of all the places I have lived, this part of 
Montana is the most desirable. 

This part of Montana has lust about everything 
that is necessary for a happy life. 

This area needs a more fully developed health program. 

People who live around here are more helpful than 
they are in most places. 

Public housing is not a problem here. 



- 276 - 



ARF.HWYCN 

AREINDPW 
AREJOBOP 

ARELVCON 

AREMED 

AREMINLV 

AREPOL 
AREPOP 

AREPOPGW 
ARERECI 

ARERECO 

ARESAFE 
ARESCHL 
ARESCNDS 

ARESENR 
ARESHOP 
ARESXED 
ARETAX 

ARETRAF 



There is not enough highway and other construction 
around 

Industrial interests in this area are too powerful. 

There are not enough job opportunities for young 
people in this area. 

My living conditions here leave a lot to be desired. 

This area has excellent health and medical care. 

This would be a better place if more minorities 
lived here. 

Police protection in this area is of high caliber. 

With proper planning, I do not think an increase 
in population will negatively affect this area. 

Population growth in this area presents no problem. 

More indoor recreational facilities would be 
desirable. 

More outdoor recreational facilities would be 
desirable. 

This is a very safe place to live. 

We have an excellent school system at this time. 

The scenic resources of this area are being destroyed 
as the result of a variety of factors. 

Senior citizens have adequate facilities in this area. 

Shopping facilities in this area are adequate. 

More sex education in the schools is unnecessary. 

I would rather pay high taxes and live in this area 
than pay lower taxes and live somewhere else. 

Traffic has become a real problem in this area. 



- 277 - 



BADEMPLY 



BEACHDS 



BESTMINE 



BNFTCITY 



The kind of people employed at construction sites 
around here are not generally as good as they might 
be because more skilled workers take -jobs with 
better working conditions. 

Coal companies have established inroads and 
beachheads in coal-laden land by buying or leasing 
key places and then developing scare rumors and 
pincer movements to gain control over large chunks 
of the land for development. 

The development of strin mines would be one of the 
best things that ever happened in our nart of the 
state. 

Any expansion of coal development within the Decker- 
Birney planning area will benefit the larger outlying 
municipalities such as Sheridan, Wyoming, or Hardin, 
Montana, more than the residents within the planning 
area. 



BNFTRESD 

CHILDITR 

CHILDLDR 
CO ALE CON 



COALEFCT 



COALTAX 



COMPCMP 



Any expansion of coal development within the area 
would directly benefit the planning area's residents. 

Children of newcomers make the schools more 
interesting. 

Children of some newcomers become leaders in school. 

Decisions about coal related developments should be 
made on economic grounds only; consideration need 
not be given to effects on life styles and values 
of people. 

If you consider yourself a permanent resident of 
this area what effect has coal development had on 
your residence? 

The tax revenue from the coal development is being 
distributed: very fairly, more fairlv than unfairly, 
neither fairly nor unfairly, more unfairlv than 
fairly, very unfairly or no opinion. 

The coal companies have no compassion for the land 
they are attempting to reclaim. They are doing it 
only because it is required by law. 



- 278 - 



COCONCRN How concerned about the environment (air, soil, 

water, plants, animals) do you think the nowpr and 
coal companies in the Colstrip vicinity really are? 

DECBEAUT Beauty of the area 

DECBUSNS Business or investment reasons 

DECCONV Convenient location for job 

DECCOST Low cost of living 

DECCLIM Climate 

DECCRIM Absence of crime 

DECFAM Family nearby 

DECFRND Friends in the area 

DECHLTH Health 

DECINHRT Inheritance 

DECLIFE Way of life 

DECPOLL Absence of pollution 

DECREC Access to recreation 

DECROOTS Deep social roots 

DEEPMINE Eastern Montana coal should be deen mined rather 
than strip mined. 

DEMVOTE In a democratic government, each person should 
have one vote. 

DESRCONS The life-styles and values of construction workers 
are at least as desirable as those of permanent 
residents . 

DRYUP The removal of the coal seams may cause meadows 

to dry up and springs to disappear. 



- 279 - 



DVLPINDS 



EMINTDMN 



We owe it to the re9t of Montana to develop 
more industry for the state. 

Power companies should never be granted the right 
to use eminent domain to obtain rights of wav for 
power lines. Instead, a negotiation procedure 
should be used, one which allows each land owner 
to have the final word concerning the use of hi9 
land. 



EMPLYSCO 



ENGYCRIS 



ENOUGHMN 
EXPLTRES 

EVALPLNS 

FAVCLOSE 
FAVCONDV 

FAVPLAN 

FAVPUBAC 



There is frequent turnover among those employed on 
plant construction and related construction. 

What has come to be called the "energy crisis" is: 
definitely a serious and widespread energy shortage 
probably a 9erious and widespread energy shortage 
too uncertain a matter for me to pass judgment on 
probably not really a serious and widespread energy 
shortage at all 
not a serious shortage yet, but will be in the future 

There are presently enough developed strip mines 
in eastern Montana. 

Eastern Montana's resources (land, minerals, water, 
recreational opportunities) are being exploited by 
outsiders. 

Power and coal companies should be required to 
reveal their long-range plans so that state and 
local officials can evaluate the plans. 

Closing additional lands to snowmobile and trailbikes. 

Concentrating future building in a small number of 
more urbanized areas and limiting additional 
development elsewhere. 

If opposition to comprehensive planning of this 
area developed, would you do anything to support 
the planning? 

Requiring builders to dedicate for public use a 
prescribed number of acres. 



- ?m - 



FAVRDPAV 

FAVWTLD 

FEELPART 

GUILTY RS 



INDPLAN 



TNDSTGTS 



INTIMRES 



ISSUEDIS 



KNOAI'TO 

KNOBNKR 

KNOCAFE 

KNOCOP 

KNOELECT 

KNOFIRE 

KNOT, ROC 

KNOHRDWR 



A system of paved roads into and out of this area. 

Creation of additional wilderness areas near here. 

It is important to feel like you are part of the 
community. 

Residents are being made to feel guilty for trying 
to 9ave their lives in the battle against the 
nation's alleged need for coal versus the life- 
style of a few. 

Because industries have to be competitive, it is 
unfair to expect them to tell the public about 
their expansion plans. 

Decisions about whether to permit further coal 
mining and power generation will not be affected 
by what people in this area think should be done, 
but by the pressures exerted by industrial giants. 

There is a lot of effort going on by coal, power, 
and construction company officials to try to bluff, 
coerce, and even intimidate local residents into 
doing their bidding. 

It is difficult to discuss the coal issue frankly, 
trustingly, and uninhibitedly with friends who 
hold opposing view9 , positions, or commitments 
concerning coal development. 

Automobile dealer or mechanic 

Banker 

Cafe owner or operator 

Law enforcement officer 

Electrician 

Firemen 

Grocer 

Hardware store operator 



- ?Hl - 



KN'OMINST 

ICN'OMOTEL 

KNONRS 

KNOPHYS 

KNOPLUMB 

KNOSERV 

KNOSPRT 

KNOTCHR 

LANDCOND 

LVNGCNDT 



Minister or priests 

Hotel or motel operator 

Nurse 

Physician 

Plumber 

Service station operator 

Sporting goods store operator 

School teacher (not college) 

Land condemnation threats have been issued to 
scare ranchers into giving up the fight against 
coal development. 

Living conditions in the construction trailer 
courts are not good because adequate facilities 
have not been provided for the workers. 



LOCALGOV 



MECOAL 



ME RATE 



How satisfied are you with the influence vou 
have on the local government? 

Decisions about whether to permit further coal 
mining and power generation should not be 
influenced by people like me. 

Decisions about the rate at which further coal 
mining and power generation should be permitted 
should not be influenced bv people like me. 



MINESBTR 



MTNGCOMP 



MINRSRES 



In the long run, I am sure that area residents 

will be better off if the strip mines are developed. 

Strip mining is compatible with vour views of 
sound land use management. 

Miners tend to consider themselves permanent 
residents of the area and are, in basic social 
respects, much more like long term residents than 
like construction workers. 



- 2R2 - 



MNTANLAW 



Montana laws are sufficiently strict and 
enforceable to permit continued power nlant 
construction in this area. 



MORLEASE 

MORPOWR 
MORRAILR 

MORSTRIP 
MPCNOAFF 



MPCRECLM 



NATNEED 



Further leasing of state and federal coal lands 
to energy companies. 

Building any more power olants in this area. 

Additional railroads, power lines or pipe lines 
associated with coal development. 

The development of new strip mines in this area. 

It is likely that the four power generating units 
and the related strip mining activities which 
Montana Power Co. wants could operate in this area 
without harmfully affecting existing ranching 
operations . 

Judging from what can be ovserved at Colstrin, 
Montana Power Company's advertised reclamation 
claims are certainly believable. 

The nation's need for coal is one important 
consideration on decisions to develop Montana's 
coal resources. 



NEWCHRCH 

NOSTOP 
OBJMOVE 



Newcomers are well accented into church activities 
if they want to be. 

You can't stop progress. 

People who obiect to coal development in this area 
should move somewhere else. 



OCHTPLAN 



OLDRMRS 



OPPPLAN 



Who do you think should primarily make the final 
decision whether a comprehensive community plan 
will be adopted in this area? 

Old timers around here have too much control over 
decisions affecting newcomers. 

You indicated before that you do not favor 
comprehensive area-wide planning. Now, are you 
likely to actively oppose such a program? 



- 2 83 



OWEELECT 

OWN BOW 
OWNCAM 
OWNCCSKI 

OWN CMP R 

OWNCYCL 

OWNFISH 

0WN4WHL 

OWNGUN 

OWNHORS 

OWNMOVIE 

OWNPSTL 

OWNPWRBT 

OWNSKI 

OWNSNMB 

OWNTENT 

OWNWSKT 

PLNEARLY 

PLNFIND1 

PLNFIND2 



We owe it to the rest of the U.S. to generate 
electricity here and transmit it to them. 

Bow 

35mm camera 

Snowshoe9 or corss country skis 

Camping trailer or camper 

Trail bike 

Fishing rod 

4-wheel drive recreational vehicle 

Rifle or shotgun 

Horse 

Movie camera 

Handgun 

Power boat 

Skis 

Snowmobile 

Tent 

Water skis 

When did the earliest planning occur, that you 
heard of? 

How did you find out about these efforts? 

How did you find out about these efforts? 



- 284 - 



PLANHARM 



PLNRESLT 



POPTIES 



POORTMBR 



If a comprehensive plan were developed, would it 
moat likely be of economic benefit or harm to you, 
or would it probably make no difference? 

As far as you know, has any result occurred from 
the planning? 

Your family ties will be affected by the coal 
development and the population influx. 

Most public domain timber in the Decker-Rirnev 
planning area does not have the capabilitv of 
being managed and if it is in the way of strip 
mining, it should be sacrificed. 



PORLYINF 



In general, Montanans who live outside of the area 
where coal resources are being developed are poorly 
informed about what is actually happening in this 
area. 



PREFRSTP 

PROFAREA 

PROFFRND 
PROFS ELF 
PROFPWR 

PRVMIN 



Strip mining Montana coal is preferred to deep 
mining it because stripping is more economical 
for the coal company and safer for the miners. 

Suppose that professional planners wanted to get 
involved with planning this area, how would most 
people in this area feel about this idea? 

Your best friends? 

Self? 

The powerful and influential people in this area, 
i.e., businessmen, politicians, large ranchers? 

When mineral rights agreements were originally 
signed by land owners and the federal government, 
there was no concept of 9trip mining, but it was 
assumed underground mining might be done someday. 
Therefore, to strip mine the coal is to violate 
the original agreement between the landowners and 
the federal government. 



PWRMINE 



A shift in political power from the ranchers to 
the new mining industrialists is becoming evident, 



- 285 - 



RECIVPAY 



In general, and as a rule, the people who receive 
energy from coal should pay the local social costs 
("people pollution" and adverse economic effects, 
etc. ) . 



RIVDAM 



Too many rivers and creeks in eastern Montana will 
be damned up due to coal industrialization. 



SACRCOAL 



SCIOPP 



SCIVOTE 



Coal development entails a sacrifice of recreational 
values and of future land use possibilities. 

If scientists wanted to develop a comprehensive plan 
in this area, how likely would you be to sign a 
petition opposing the plan? 

If residents in this area were to vote on whether a 
comprehensive plan should be adopted, how do you 
think you would vote? 



SCL COSTS 



Too little attention is being paid to the social 
costs of coal development which accompany whatever 
economic benefits coal development is bringing 
Rosebud Countv. 



SEECHG 



SEEBETR 



7MINES 



SHFTRANC 



Would you say that you have noticed anv malor 
changes in the area since you first came here? 

If YES, do you feel these changes have been for 
the better or for the worse? 

Seven mine-mouth generating plants have been suggested 
for the Decker-Birney planning area. 

A shift in political power from townspeople to 
ranchers is becoming evident. 



STRPEXPN 



Strip mining would be -just as expensive as deep 
mining if coal companies paid the full costs of 
such things as rendering the stripped land useless 
for agriculture for many years, displacing 
agriculture people from their land for many years, 
putting the stripped land into low tax status for 
many years, and the like. 



- 2R6 



STRPRCLM 



SULFUR 



Who should be empowered to determine whether or 
not stripped land has been truly reclaimed? 

The primary reason for the interest of coal in 
the Decker-Birney planning area is that a malority 
of the coal is low in sulfur, ash, and sodium 
content . 



TEACHTMP 



USPOP 



WHOP LAN 



WTRCROPS 



Teachers treat "temporary" children differently 
than they do "permanent" children. 

Something should be done to stop population 
growth in the U.S. as soon as possible. 

Who do you think will primarily make the final 
decision whether a comprehensive community plan 
will be adopted in this area? 

Water that is needed for crops will be used up 
by the power plant operations. 



287 - 



f 



I 



F620 30. 3102 :k 

SATISFACTION, COAL DEVELOPMENT AND 
author LAND USE PLANNING: A REPORT 

OF ATTITUDES HELD BY RESIDENTS OF 
TITLE DECKER-BIRNEY STUDY AREA 



i>s»arc!) & Infornutwn Systems M. 

State Dipt Coanuiity Affairs 

Capitol Station 

lelwa. Mwtatia 58601